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MEDI 100 L1

QuestionAnswer
What are the two main body cavities and their subdivisions? Dorsal Cranial Cavity - contains the skull and brain and the vertebral cavity - contains the vertebral column and spinal cord. Ventral Thoracic, abdominal and pelvic cavities.
What is the purpose of each body cavity? what does the ventral cavity house? Give examples for each cavity. Dorsal: Protects the organs of the nervous system Ventral: Houses viscera; Thoracic = heart and lungs. Abdominal = stomach, intestine, spleen, kidney, liver, Colon, Bile Ducts, Gall bladder, Ureter. Pelvic = Urinary bladder, some reproductive organs
What is the meaning of Viscera? The internal organs in the main cavities of the body - those witihn the ventral body cavity.
What are the 3 main parts of the human cell? Plasma membrane, Cytoplasm (contains organelles) and the Nucleus (contains chromosomes)
What is the purpose of the 3 parts of the human cell? Plasma membrane = Protective outer layer of cells Cytoplasm = Contains organelles that perform specific cellular functions Nucleus = Contains chromosomes and controls cell activity
How does the plasma membrane act as a protective boundary? It separates the body's two fluid compartments - the intracellular and extracellular fluid.
What function of the plasma membrane allows it to control the entry and exit of substances into and out of the cell? The plasma membrane is selectively permeable.
Where is the cytoplasm located in the cell? In between the plasma membrane and the nucleus
The most cellular activity occurs in which part of the cell? The Cytoplasm
What are the 3 major elements of Cytoplasm? Give a brief description of these elements Cytosol; semitransparent fluid/gel Organelles: Biological machinery Inclusions: Stored nutrients, secretory products, and pigment granules, ie chemical substances eg Glycogen
What are the main functions of the Nucleus? Control centre of the cell Contains genes: cell replication, repair and protein synthesis
What are 3 main components of the Nucleus? Give a brief description of their function. Nuclear Envelope: Membrane barrier that controls traffic into and out of the cell. Nucleolus: Constructs Ribosomes Chromatin: Contained in Chromosomes that become DNA
What is the function of a Ribosome? Ribosomes are used to make proteins from (DNA to mRNA)
What are the 4 types of tissue types? Nervous, Muscle, Epithelial and Connective
What is the main function of Nervous Tissue? Where is Nervous Tissue located? Internal communication The Brain, Spinal Cord and Nerves
How does Nervous Tissue communicate? Signals from the internal or external environment are received by Neurons (in Nervous Tissue) and then transmitted as electrical impulses to muscles, glands, the central nervous system or other neurons.
What is the function of Muscle Cells? Muscle cells contract to cause movement
What are the 3 types of muscle cells? Give a brief description of each. Skeletal: Muscles attached to bones Cardiac: Muscles of the heart Smooth: Muscles of walls of hollow organs such as the stomach and small intestines
What is the function of Epithelial Tissue? Where can epithelial tissue be located? Give examples Forms a boundary or specialised junction between different environments, secretes and absorbs substances, protects and filters substances. All surfaces such as Linings of the digestive tract organs, other hollow organs and skin or epidermis surfaces.
What are the function of connective tissue? Where can connective tissue be located? Provide support and protection and also bind other tissues together. Bones, Tendons, fat and other soft padding tissue
What is the definition of a hollow organ? Name 3 examples Organs that pass food (including to a foetus) such as the stomach, small intestines and fallopian tubes.
What are the main features of epithelial cells? They can be single or multilayered
Connective Tissue is characterised by Extracellular matrix that separates the cells Low cell density Connective Tissue produces fibres in which the extracellular environment is mostly comprised of.
Muscle Tissue is characterised by Structure and function Specialised interactive internal proteins such as Actin and Myosin
What are the distinct orientations of the 3 muscle tissue types? Cardiac: Fibres face different directions and it contains intercalated discs Skeletal: Striated (striped or streaked) Smooth: Non striated, narrow arrangement
Nervous tissue is highly specialised for what function? Electrical Conduction
What is Nervous Tissue comprised of? Neurons
The main functions of the Skeletal System are? Framework, assist movement and provide support
What are the main functions of the Muscular System? Movement and heat production
The main functions of the nervous system are? Respond to internal and external stimuli, electrical and chemical signals used to regulate bodily function
What are the main functions of the Cardiovascular system? Transport Oxygen, nutrients and waste
The main functions of the Respiratory System are? To supply blood with Oxygen and remove carbon dioxide
What are the overall consequences of a disturbance in Homeostasis? Increase risk of disease Death (incompatibility with life)
What is a Signal Input or Stimulus? A change in the external or internal environment that causes an error to occur in the human body which disrupts Homeostasis
What is the main function of the Sensor or Receptor? Responds to a change in Homeostasis by signalling to the control centre.
What are the 3 main functions of the control centre? Determines the set point of a variable in order to detect a change. Receives input from the receptor Determines appropriate response and signals to effector
The 3 main functions of the Effector are? Receive output form the control centre Provides the means to respond to the error Response acts to reduce or enhance the stimulus
What is a Physiological Outcome The overall response to the error that restores Homeostasis
What is Negative Feedback? Give an example The response reduces or stops the original stimulus Original Stimulus: Shivering Negative Feedback stops the shivering
Positive Feedback is? Give an example The response enhances or accelerates the original stimulus Original Stimulus: Release of Oxytocin during childbirth contractions. Positive Feedback Releases more Oxytocin to induce more contractions.