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Med Term CH7

Med Term CH7 Respiratory System

bronch/o, bronchi/o bronchial tube, bronchus
Structures of the respiratory system nose, sinuses, pharynx, larynx, epliglottis, trachea, bronchi, alveoli, lungs
Nose; combining forms & functions nas/o, exchanges air during inhaling & exhaling; warms, moisturizes, & filters inhaled air
Sinuses; combining forms & functions sinus/o; produce mucus for nasal cavities, make bones of skull lighter, aid in sound production
Pharynx; combining forms & functions pharyng/o; transports air back & forth btw the nose & trachea
Larynx; combining forms & functions laryng/o; makes speech possible
Epiglottis; combining forms & functions epiglott/o; closes off trachea during swallowing
Trachea; combining forms & functions transports air back & forth btw pharynx & bronchi
Bronchi; combining forms & functions bronch/o, bronchi/o; transports air from trachea into the lungs
Alveoli; combining forms & functions air sacs that exchange gases w/ pulmonary capillary blood
Lungs; combining forms & functions pneum/o, pneumon/o, pulmon/o; bring oxygen into body, remove carbon dioxide & some water waste from body
laryng/o larynx, throat
nas/o nose
ox/i, ox/o, ox/y oxygen
pharyng/o throat, pharynx
phon/o sound, voice
pleur/o pleura, side of the body
-pnea breathing
pneum/o, pneumon/o, pneu- lung, air
pulm/o, pulmon/o lung
sinus/o sinus
somn/o sleet
spir/o to breathe
thorac/o, -thorax chest, pleural cavity
trache/o, trachea windpipe, trachea
Functions of respiratory system deliver air to lungs, convey oxygen to blood, expel waste products through exhalation, produce airflow through larynx for speech
respiratory system supplies blood w/ oxygen for transportation to the cells in all parts of the body
This is vital to the survival & function of cells oxygen
respiratory system removes carbon dioxide & some water waste from body
tracts of respiratory system upper & lower
upper respiratory tract nose, mouth, pharynx, epiglottis, larynx, & trachea
lower respiratory tract bronchial tree & lungs located/ protected by thoracic cavity
protects lower respiratory tract thoracic cavity - aka thorax, rib cage
airway upper respiratory tract & bronchial tree of lower respiratory tract
Nose parts for respiratory system nostrils, nasal septum, cilia, mucous membranes, mucus, olfactory receptors
Nostrils external openings of the nose
nasal septum wall of cartilage that divides nose into 2 equal sections
septum wall that separates 2 chambers
cilia (nose, respiratory system) thin hairs located just inside the nostrils, filter incoming air to remove debris
mucous membranes (nose, respiratory system) specialized tissue that lines the nose
mucus (nose, respiratory system) slippery secretion that protects & lubricates. Helps moisten, warm, & filter air as it enters.
Mucous name of the tissue
Mucus secretion that flows from the tissue
olfactory receptors nerve endings that act as receptors for the sense of smell. Important for taste too. In mucous membrane upper nasal cavity
tonsils and adenoids (tonsils, respiratory system) part of lymphatic system, help protect body from infection coming through nose or mouth
palatine tonsils aka tonsils, located @ back of mouth
adenoids aka nasophayngeal tonsils, higher up behind nose & roof of mount
paranasal sinuses air-filled cavities lined w/ mucous membrane, located in bones of skull.
sinus a sac or cavity in any organ or tissue, although most commonly refers to paranasal sinuses
Functions of paranasal sinuses 1) make skull ligher, 2) help produce sound giving resonance to voice, 3) produce mucus for lubricating tissues of nasal cavity
frontal sinuses located in frontal bone just above eyebrows. Infection causes severe pain in area
sphenoid sinuses located in sphenoid bone behind eye & under pituitary gland, close to optic nerves & infection can damage vision
maxillary sinuses largest of paranasal sinuses, located in maxillary bones under eyes, infection causes pain in posterior maxillary teeth
ethmnoid sinuses located in ethmoid bones btw nose & eyes, irregularly shaped air cells that are separated from orbital cavity by only thin bone
pharynx aka throat, receives air after it passes through nose or mouth, as well as food.
3 divisions of pharynx nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
nasopharynx 1st division, posterior to nasal cavity & continues downward to behind mouth. Transportation of air & opens oropharynx
oropharynx 2nd division, portion visible when looking into moutj, shared by respiratory & digestive, transports air, food, fluids to downward to laryngopharynx
laryngopharnyx 3rd division, shared by respiratory & digestive; air, food, fluids continue downward to esophagus & trachea
larnyx aka voice box, triangular chamber located btw pharynx & trachea
larynx protected & supported by series of 9 separate cartilages
thyroid cartilage largest that protects larynx & when enlarged it projects from the front of the throat & commonly known as Adam's apple
Larynx contains vocal cords that separate when breathing for air to pass, closed during speech
Vocal cords producing sound close together and sound is produced as air is expelled from lungs, causing cords to vibrate against each other
protective swallowing mechanisms soft palate & epiglottis that act automatically during swallowing to ensure only air goes into lungs
soft palate muscular posterior portion of roof of mouth that moves up & backward during swallowing to close off nasopharynx.
epiglottis lid-like structure @ base of tongue, swings downward & closes off laryngopharynx so food does not enter trachea/ lungs
trachea aka windpipe, located directly in front of esophagus, tube that transports air to and from lungs
trachea held open by series of flexible C-shaped cartilage rings that make it possible for trachea to compress so food can pass down esophagus
bronchi 2 large tubes, aka primary bronchi, that branch out from trachea & convey air into 2 lungs. Bronchial tree (upside down tree)
bronchioles within lung, each primary bronchus divides & subdivides into these, the smallest branches of the bronchi
alveoli aka air sacs, very small grapelike clusters found @ end of each bronchiole. Exhange of oxygen & carbon dioxide take place
each lung contains millions of these alveoli
during respiration, _______ are filled w/ air from bronchioles alveoli
pulmonary relating to or affecting the lungs
Surround alveoli network of microscopic pulmonary capillaries
the alveoli produce detergent-like substance (surfactant), which reduces surface tension of fluid in lungs. Makes more stable when exhales
premature babies often lack adequate surfactant
lungs essential organs of respiration, divided into lobes
lobe subdivision or part of an organ
right lung larger that LT and has 3 lobes: upper, middle, lower (superior, middle, inferior)
left lung only has 2 lobes, upper & lower, due to space restrictions b/c heart on that side.
mediastinum middle section of chest cavity located btw lungs.
mediastinum contains connective tissue & organs (heart & its veins/ arteries), esophagus, trachea, bronchi, thymus gland, lymph nodes
pleura thin, moist, & slippery membrane that covers outer surface of lungs & lines inner surface of thoracic cavity
parietal pleura outer layer of pleura, lines walls of thoracic cavity, covers diaphram, & forms sac containing each lung, attached to chst wall
parietal relating to the walls of a cavity
visceral pleura inner layer of pleura that covers ea lung, attached directly to lungs.
visceral relating to the internal organs
pleural cavity aka pleural space; thin, fluid-filled space btw parietal & visceral pleural membranes. Fluid = lubricant
diaphragm aka thoracic diaphragm, dome-shaped sheet of muscle that separates thoracic cavity from abdomen
Contraction & relaxation of this muscle makes breathing possible diaphragm
phrenic nerves stimulate diaphragm & cause it to contract
respiration/ breathing exhange of oxygen for carbon dioxide that is essential to life
breath single respiration that consist of one inhale and one exhale
ventilation moving air in & out of lungs
inhalation act of taking in air as the diaphragm contracts & pulls downward. Causes thoracic cavity to expand & vacuum draws air into lungs
exhalation act of breathing out, as diaphragm relaxes it moves upward causing cavity to become narrower forcing air out of lungs
external respiration act of bringing air in & out of lungs from outside environment & exchanging oxygen for carbon dioxide
what happens during external respiration (inhaled) air inhaled into alveoli & oxygen immediately passes into the surrounding capillaries & carried by RBCs to all body cells
what happens during external respiration (exhaled) at same time as "inhaled" processes, waste product carbon dioxide that has passed into bloodstream transported into air spaces of lungs to be exhaled
internal respiration aka cellular respiration, is exchange of gases w/in cells of blood & tissues
Process of internal respiration oxygen passes from bloodstream into cells, cells give off waste product carbon dioxide which passes into bloodstream which transports waste to lungs where it is expelled
otolaryngologist ENT; ear, nose, throat: physician w/ specialized training in diagnosis & treatment of diseases & disorders of head & neck
pulmonologist physician who specializes in diagnosing & treating diseases & disorders of respiratory system
thoracic surgeon performs operations on the organs inside the thorax, or chest including heart, lungs, & esopagus
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD; group of lung diseases which bronchial airflow is obstructed making it difficult to breathe out
most commonly caused by long-term smoking COPD
chronic bronchitis disease which airways have become inflamed due to recurrent exposure to an inhaled irritant, usually cigarette smoke
bronch bronchus
what causes the coughing from chronic bronchitis increase in # & size of mucus-producing cells resulting in excessive mucus production & thickening of the walls of air passeges
emphysema progressive, long-term loss of lung function usually due to smoking. Decrease in total # of aveoli, enlargement of remaining aveoli, destruction
breathing w/ emphysema as aveoli destroyed, breathing becomes increasingly rapid, shallow, & difficult. Overcompensation causes lungs to chronically overinflate & ribs expanded all the time
asthma chronic inflammatory disease of bronchial tubes, triggered by allergic reaction.
asthma attack characterized by episodes of severe breathing difficulty, coughing, & wheezing
wheezing breathing sound caused by partially obstructed airway
airway inflammation swelling & clogging of bronchial tubes w/ mucus. Usually occurs after airway has been exposed to inhaled allergens
bronchospasm contraction of smooth muscle in walls of bronchi & bronchioles, tightening & squeezing the airway shut
exercise-induced asthma narrowing of airways that develops after 5-15 minutes of physical exertion
common cold aka, upper respiratory infection, URI, acute nasopharyngitis, can be caused by any one of 200 different viruses, most common human rhinovirus
human rhinovirus most common virus associated w/ common cold
allergic rhinitis aka allergy, allergic reaction to an airborne allergen that causes increased flow of mucus.
nonallergic rhinitis inflammation of the lining of the nose caused by something other than an allergen, such as cold air, spicy food, or medication
croup acute respiratory infection in children & infants characterized by obstruction of the larynx, hoarseness, & swelling around vocal cords resulting in barking cough & stridor
stridor harsh, high-pitched sound caused by a blockage present when breathing in
diptheria acute bacterial infection of the throat & upper respiratory tract. Toxins can damage heart muscle & peripheral nerves
epistaxis aka nosebleed, bleeding from nose that may be caused by dry air, injury, medication to prevent clotting, or high blood pressure
influenza aka flu, actue highly contagious viral infection: respiratory inflammation, fever, chills, muscle pain
pertussis aka whooping cough, contagious bacterial infection of upper respiratory tract: recurrent bouts of paroxysmal cough, followed by breathlessness & noisy inspiration.
paroxysmal sudden or spasmlike
DPT immunization given together in childhood against diptheria, pertussis, & tetanus
rhinorrhea aka runny nose, watery flow of mucus from nose
sinusitis inflammation of the sinuses
pharyngitis aka sore throat, inflammation of the pharynx, often symptom of cold, flu, or sinus infection.
Pharyngitis caused by this bactera streptococcus
laryngospasm sudden spasmodic closure of the larynx. Sometimes associated with GERD
aphonia loss of the ability of the larynx to produce normal speedch sounds
dysphonia difficulty in speaking, which may include any impairment in vocal quality: hoarseness, weakness, cracking of boy's voice
phon sound or voice
laryngitis inflammation of the larynx, also used to describe loss of voice caused by this inflammation
tracheorrhagia bleeding from mucous membranes of the trachea
bronchiectasis permanent dilation of the bronchi, caused by chronic infection & inflammation
-ectasis stretching or enlarging
bronchorrhea excessive discharge of mucus from the bronchi, often caused by chronic bronchitis or asthma
pleurisy aka pleuritis, inflammation of the pleura, may result from trauma, tuberculosis, connective tissue disease, or infection
pleura membranes that cover the lungs & line the pleura cavity
pleur pleura
isy noun ending
pleurodynia sharp pain that occurs when the inflamed membranes rub against each other with each inhalation
pleural effusion excess accumulation of fluid in pleural space. Produces feeling of breathlessness b/c it prevents lung from fully expanding
effusion escape of fluid from blood or lymphatic vessels into the tissues or into a body cavity
pyothorax aka empyema of the pleural cavity, presence of pus in the pleural cavity btw layers of the pleural membrane
empyema refers to a collection of pus in a body cavity
hemothorax collection of blood in the pleural cavity. Condition often results from chest trauma, such as stab wound or from disease/surgery
pneumothorax accumulation of air in the pleural space resulting in a pressure imbalance that causes the lung to fully or partially collapse
acute respiratory distress syndrome ARDS, lung condition usually caused by trauma, pneumonia, smoke or fumes, inhaled vomit, or sepsis. Life-threatening
sepsis systemic bacterial infection in bloodstream
why is ARDS life-threatening inflammation in the lungs & fluid in the alveoli lead to low levels of oxygen in the blood.
atelectasis aka collapsed lung, incomplete expansion of part or all of a lung due to a blockage of air passages or pneumothorax
atel incomplete
pulmonary edema accumulation of fluid in lung tissues, especially the alveoli. Symptom of heart failure
edema swelling
pulmonary embolism sudden blockage of pulmonary artery by foreign matter or by an embolus that has formed in the leg or pelvic region
pneumorrhagia bleeding from the lungs
tuberculosis TB an infectious disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis, usually attacks lungs but can affect other parts of body
symptoms of TB in lungs pleurisy and coughing up blood
hemoptysis coughing up blood
latent present but not active
multidrug-resistant tuburculosis dangerous form of the disease that can occur when prescribed drug regimen not strictly followed, rendering insufficient
pneumonia serious inflammation of the lungs which alveoli & air passages fill w/ pus & other fluids
pneumonia typically follows... an infection like cold, flu, chronic illness, or other condition that weakens the immune system & ability to stave off infection
2 types of bacterial pneumonia named for parts of lungs affected bronchopneumonia & lobar pneumonia
bronchopneumonia localized form that often affects bronchioles, often leads to lobar
lobar pneumonia affects larger areas of lungs, often including 1 or more sections, or lobes.
double pneumonia lobar pneumonia involving both lungs, usually bacterial form
Pneumonia's named for causative agent aspiration, bacterial, community-acquired, hospital-acquired, walking, pneumocystis, viral
most common causative agents are: air pollution, bacteria, fungi, viruses, and inhaled liquid or chemicals
aspiration pneumonia can occur when foreign substance (vomit), is inhaled into lungs
aspiration inhaling or drawing a foreign substance into the upper respiratory tract
bacterial pneumonia most commonly caused by streptococcus pneumoniae
pneumococcal pneumonia only form of pneumonia that can be prevented through vaccination
community-acquired pneumonia CAP, any pneumonia that results from contagious infection outside of a hospital or clinic. Bacterial, viral, or fungal. Most common form - all ages
hospital-acquired pneumonia aka nosocomial pneumonia, contracted during hospital stay. Ventilator patient high risk
nosocomial hospital acquired
walking pneumonia aka mycoplasma pneumonia, milder but longer-lasting form of disease caused by bacteria mycoplasma pneumoniae. Not bedridden
pneumocystis pneumonia opportunistic infection caused by yeast-like fungus pneumocystis carinii
viral pneumonia can be caused by several different types of viruses, accounts for approx 1/3 of all pneumonias
interstitial lung disease almost 200 disorders that cause inflammation & scarring of alveoli & supporting structures
interstitial relating to spaces w/in or around a tissue or organ
what happens when aveoli become scarred or stiff reduction of oxygen being transferred to the blood
pulmonary fibrosis aka interstitial fibrosis, progressive formation of scar tissue in lung, resulting in decreased lung capacity & difficulty breathing
fibrosis condition in which normal tissue is replaced by fibrotic tissue
fibrotic hardened
Connective tissue diseases that can cause pulmonary fibrosis rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, lupus
pneumoconiosis any fibrosis of the lung tissues caused by dust in the lungs after prolonged environmental or occupational contact
coni dust
asbestosis caused by asbestos particles in the lungs & usually occurs after working w/ asbestos
asbest asbestos
silicosis caused by inhaling silica dust in lungs & occurs after working in occupations including foundry work, quarrying, ceramics, glasswork, & sandblasting
silic glass
cystic fibrosis CF, life-threatening genetic disorder which lungs & pancrease are clogged w/ LG qty's of abnormally thick mucus.
CF causes damage to lungs, poor growth, & nutritional deficiencies
CF symptoms wheezing & persistent cough
lung cancer leading cause of cancer death in US, cancer cells form in tissues of lung. Smoking & 2nd-hand smoke contributing factors
breathing disorders abnormal changes in rate or depth of breathing
eupnea easy or normal breathing, baseline for judging some disorders
-pnea breathing
eu- good
apnea temporary absence of spontaneous respiration, common in premature infants
a- without
bradypnea abnormally slow rate of respiration, usually less than 10 breaths per minute
Cheyne-Stokes respiration irregular pattern of breathing characterized by alternating rapid or shallow respiration followed by slower resp or apnea
Cheyne-Stokes respiration sometimes occurs in these patients: comatose or nearing death
tachypnea abnormally rapid rate of respiration, usually of more than 2o breaths per minute
dyspnea aka shortness of breath SOB, difficult or labored breathing, frequently 1 of 1st symptoms of heart failure
hyperpnea commonly associated w/ exertion. breathing that is deeper & more rapid than it is at normal rest.
in addition to exertion, hyperpnea may also occur at high altitudes or be caused by anemia or sepsis
hypopnea shallow or slow respiration
hyperventilation abnormally rapid rate of deep respiration that is usually associated w/ anxiety.
hyperventilation causes decrease in level of _______, which causes carbon dioxide - causes dizziness & tingling in fingers/ toes
sleep-related breathing disorders are characterized by: disruptions of normal breathing patterns that only occur during sleep & assoc w/ higher risks of cardiovascular disease/ strokes
sleep apnea potentially serious disorder in which breathing repeatedly stops & starts during sleep for periods long enough to cause measurable decrease in blood oxygen levels
obstructive sleep apnea OSA, caused by muscles @ back of throat relaxing & narrowing the airways
snoring symptom of sleep apnea, is noisy breathing caused by vibration of the soft palate
expectoration act of coughing up & spitting out saliva, mucus, or other body fluid
expector to cough up
-ation state or action
hemoptysis expectoration of blood or blood-stained sputum derived from the lungs or bronchial tubes as result of pulmonary or bronchial hemorrhage
-ptysis spitting
airway obstruction aka choking, occurs when food or a foreign object partially or completely blocks airway & prevents air from entering/ leaving lungs
abdominal thrusts/ Heimlich maneuver used to remove airway obstructions that are life-threatening
anoxia absence of oxygen from the body's tissues & organs even though adequate flow of blood. More than 4-6 min irreversible damage
hypoxia condition of having deficient oxygen levels in body's tissues & organs but less severe than anoxia
hypoxia caused by variety of factors, including head trauma, carbon monoxide poisoning, suffocation, & high altitudes
altitude hypoxia aka altitude sickness, condition from decreased oxygen in air at higher altitudes, usually above 8K feet
asphyxia loss of consciousness that occurs when body cannot get oxygen it needs to function.
asphyxia cane be caused by choking, suffocation, drowning, or inhaling gases like carbon monoxide
asphyxiation state of asphyxia or suffocation. Life-threatening condition where oxygen levels in blood drop quickly, carbon dioxide levels rise, &unless breathing restored w/in few minutes serious brain damage follows
cyanosis bluish discoloration of the skin & mucous membranes caused by lack of adequate oxygen in blood
hypercapnia abnormal buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood
capn carbon dioxide
hypoxemia condition of having low oxygen levels in blood, usually due to respiratory disorders or heart conditions
hyp- deficient
respiratory failure aka RF, respiratory acidosis, level of oxygen in blood becomes dangerously low or level of carbon dioxide becomes dangerously high.
smoke inhalation damage to the lungs in which particles from fire coat the alveoli & prevent the normal exchange of gases
sudden infant death syndrome SIDS, sudden unexplainable death of apparently healthy sleeping infant btw 2-6mo. Cause unknown
Safe to Sleep Formerly "back to sleep" campaign recommending infants sleep on back instead of facedown w/ no blankets, pillows, or toys
respiratory rate important vital sign, is the count of the # of breaths per minute - counting as 1 inhalation - 1 exhalation = 1 breath
respiratory sounds rales, rhonchi, & stridor provide info about the condition of the lungs & pleura
bronchoscopy visual exam of bronchi using bronchoscope
bronch/o bronchus
bronchoscope flexible, fiber-optic device passed through nose or mouth & down airways. Used for operative procedures - tissue repair, etc
chest x-ray aka CXR or chest imaging, tool for diagnosing pneumonia, lung cancer, pneumothorax, pleural effusion, TB, & emphysema
laryngoscopy visual exam of larynx & vocal cords using flexible or rigid laryngoscope inserted through mouth
indirect laryngoscopy simpler version of test which larynx is viewed by shining light on an angled mirror held @ back of soft palate
peak flow meter inexpensive handheld device used for patients to measure air flow out of lungs, revealing any narrowing of airways b4 attack
polysomnography aka sleep study, measures physiological activity during sleep & often performed to detect nocturnal defects in breathing
somn/o sleep
pulmonary function tests PFTs, tests that measure volume & flow of air by using spirometer. Measured against norm for age, height, sex
spirometer recording device that measures amt of air inhaled or exhaled & length of time required for each breath
spir/o to breathe
-meter to measure
incentive spironmeter used to help patients who have recently had surgery keep lungs healthy during recovery
emergency tracheotomy procedure which incision made into trachea to gain access to airway below a blockage
trache trachea
-otomy surgical incision
pneumonectomy surgical removal of all or part of a lung
pneumon lung
lobectomy surgical removal of a lobe of an organ, usually lung, brain, or liver.
wedge resection surgery in which small wedge-shaped piece of cancerous lung tissue is removed, along w/ some healthy tissue around cancer
thoracentesis surgical puncture of chest wall w/ needle to obtain fluid or air from pleural cavity
pleural effusion liquid in pleural cavity
pneumothorax air in pleural cavity
thoracotomy surgical incision into chest walls to open the pleural cavity for biopsy or treatment. Access to lungs, heart, esophagus, diaphragm, & other organs
video-assisted thoracic surgery VATS - use of thoracoscope to view inside of pleural cavity through very small incisions
thoracoscope specialized endoscope used for treating the thorax.
VATS procedure is for removing small sections of cancerous tissue to obtain biopsy specimens to diagnose certain types of pneumonia, infections, or tumors of chest wall or treat repeatedly collapsing lungs
treatments for cystic fibrosis pancreatic enzymes, chest percussion
pancreatic enzymes aid digestive system as well as bronchodilators to keep airways open
chest percussion therapeutic technique to remove excess mucus from lungs. Patient positioned @ angle 4 gravity to drain secretions
diaphragmatic breathing aka abdominal breathing, relaxation technique used to relieve anxiety
CPAP machine (continuous positive airway pressure) noninvasive ventilation device used in treatment of sleep apnea. Face mask connected to pump creating constant air pressure in nasal passages, holding airway open. Reduces snoring
BiPAP machine (bilevel positive airway pressure) Can be set higher than CPAP, for inhaling & lower pressure for exhaling. Used w/ neuromuscular disease patients
Ambu bag aka bag valve mask, BVM; emergency resuscitator used to assist ventilation. "bagging"
ventilator mechanical device for artificial respiration used to replace/ supplement patient's natural breathing function. Forces air into lungs
supplemental oxygen administered when patient unable to maintain adequate oxygen saturation level in blood from breathing normal air
How supplemental oxygen is delivered to patient nasal cannula, rebreather mask, non-rebreather mask
nasal cannula small tube that divides into 2 nasal prongs
rebreather mask allows the exhaled breath to be partially reused, delivering up to 60% oxygen
non-rebreather mask allows higher levels of oxygen to be added to the air taken in by patient
hyperbaric oxygen therapy HBOT, involves breathing pure oxygen in special chamber that allows air pressure to be raised up to 3x higher than normal
ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome
COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
CF cystic fibrosis
ETT endotracheal intubation
FESS functional endoscopic sinus surgery
HBOT hyperbaric oxygen therapy
MDI metered-dose inhaler
PFT pulmonary function tests
RF respiratory failure
SIDS sudden infant death syndrome
TB tuberculosis
URI upper respiratory infection
Created by: kld0519