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MOT - 135

Urinary System - Spelling/Definitions

Calculi Mineral deposits that can form a blockage in the urinary system. Also called a stone.
Calyx a cup-shaped organ or cavity, e.g., one of the recesses of the pelvis of the kidney which enclose the pyramids.
Catheterization The process of inserting a tubular instrument into a body cavity to permit passage of fluid.
Cavernous pertaining to a hollow, or containing hollow spaces.
Convoluted rolled together or coiled.
Corpuscle bodies forming the beginning of nephrons, each consisting of the glomerulus and glomerular capsule.
Cortex the outer part of the substance of the kidney, composed mainly of glomeruli and convoluted tubules.
Creatinine The metabolized by-product of creatine, an organic acid that assists the body in producing muscle contractions. Creatinine is found in the bloodstream and in muscle tissue. It is removed from the blood by the kidneys and excreted in the urine.
Cystitis inflammation of the urinary bladder.
Cystoscopy diagnostic procedure that is used to look at the bladder (lower urinary tract), collect urine samples, and examine the prostate gland.
Detrusor A muscle that pushes down, such as the muscle that expels urine from the bladder.
Diuretic A substance or drug that tends to increase the discharge of urine.
Dysuria Difficult or painful urination.
Fascia fibrous connective tissue membrane which helps hold the kidneys in place.
Glomerular filtration the renal process whereby fluid in the blood is filtered across the capillaries of the glomerulus and into the urinary space of Bowman's capsule.
Glomerulonephritis Inflammatory disease of both kidneys predominantly affecting children from ages two to 12.
Glomerulosclerosis a severe kidney disease in which glomerular function of blood filtration is lost as fibrous scar tissue replaces the glomeruli. The disease commonly follows an infection or arteriosclerosis.
Glomerulus A small tuft of blood capillaries in the kidney, responsible for filtering out waste products.
Glycosuria the presence of glucose in the urine.
Hematuria The presence of blood in the urine. Also called hematuresis.
Hemodialysis A procedure for removing metabolic waste products or toxic substances from the bloodstream by dialysis.
Hydronephrosis is the swelling of the kidneys when urine flow is obstructed in any of part of the urinary tract.
Incontinence inability to control excretory functions.
Ketonuria An excessive concentration of ketone bodies in the urine.
Lithotripsy is the use of high-energy shock waves to fragment and disintegrate kidney stones.
Membranous Relating to, made of, or similar to a membrane.
Microvilli tiny hairlike processes that extend from the surface of many cells. They are usually so small as to be visible only with an electron microscope.
Micturition Urination; the process of voiding urine
Nephrectomy is the surgical procedure of removing a kidney or section of a kidney.
Nephritis inflammation of the kidney.
Nephron The functional unit of the kidney, consisting of the renal corpuscle, the proximal and distal convoluted tubules, and the nephronic loop
Nephropathy disease of the kidneys
Nephrotoxic destructive to kidney cells.
Nitrogenous Relating to or containing nitrogen.
Oliguria a decrease in the excretion of urine from the body due to dehydration, an imbalance in electrolytes or body fluids, the presence of renal lesions, the obstruction of the urinary tract, or other causes. Also called oliguresis.
Orifice An opening, especially to a cavity or passage of the body; a mouth or vent
Papilla a small nipple-shaped projection or elevation. The blunted apices of the renal pyramids.
Papillary duct a passage with well-defined walls, especially a tubular structure for the passage of excretions or secretions
Peritoneum the serous membrane lining the walls of the abdominal and pelvic cavities (parietal p.) and investing the contained viscera (visceral p.), the two layers enclosing a potential space, the peritoneal cavity.peritoneĀ“al
Peritubular situated around or near tubules.
Pinocytosis a mechanism by which cells ingest extracellular fluid and its contents; it involves the formation of invaginations by the cell membrane, which close and break off to form fluid-filled vacuoles in the cytoplasm.
Polycystic Having or containing many cysts.
Polyuria the excretion of an abnormally large quantity of urine. Some causes are diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, use of diuretics, excessive fluid intake, and hypercalcemia.
Prostate a gland surrounding the bladder neck and urethra in the male; it contributes a secretion to the semen
Proteniuria protein in the urin.
Pruritus Severe itching, often of undamaged skin.
Pyelonephritis Inflammation of the kidney and its pelvis, caused by bacterial infection
Renal Of, relating to, or in the region of the kidneys.
Retoperitoneal located behind the peritoneum.
Rugae A fold, crease, or wrinkle, as in the lining of the stomach. Often used in the plural.
Trigone A smooth triangular area on the inner surface of the bladder, limited by the apertures of the ureters and urethra.
Tubule A very small tube or tubular structure.
Uremia A toxic condition resulting from kidney disease in which there is retention in the bloodstream of waste products normally excreted in the urine. Also called azotemia.
Ureter the tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder
Urethra The canal through which urine is discharged from the bladder in most mammals and through which semen is discharged in the male
Urethral sphincter a striated sphincter muscle that constricts the urethra
Voiding To excrete body wastes.
Created by: kbcanarr