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respiratory system

test 2

functions of the respiratory system ventilation, gas exchange, gas transport
ventilation movement of air to and from sites of gas exchange; negative pressure creates a suction in the lungs; pressure in the alveoli is lower than in the atmosphere
gas exchange movement of specific gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide between air and blood or between blood and extracellular fluids
gas transport movement of oxygen away from lung and carbon dioxide back toward lung
nasal cavity removes dust and other debris; warms inhaled air; humidifies inhaled air
nasal septum separates right and left sides of the nasal cavity
palate separates nasal cavity from oral cavity
pharynx receives air from nasal cavity; nasopharynx, oropharynx, and larynogopharynx
larynx keeps airways open even with negative pressure; keeps food/liquids from entering trachea; vocalization
large unpaired cartilages thyroid, cricoid, epiglottis
smaller paired cartilages arytenoid, corniculate, cuneiform
vocal cords/folds/ligaments strands of dense regular connective tissue running anteriorly from arytenoid cartilages to thyroid cartilage; if adducted air moving between the cords cause them to vibrate
intrinsic muscles of larynx move the vocal cords by moving the arytenoid cartilage
glottis opening between the vocal cords
trachea begins at the bottom of larynx; divides into two primary bronchi; held open by cartilages which form incomplete rings around it
lungs occupy most of the thoracic cavity; surrounded double layered pleura
hilum primary bronchus, pulmonary artery, pulmonary veins enter/leave together here in each lung
pleural cavity between parietal and visceral layers
right lung 3 lobes: superior, middle and inferior; two fissures: horizontal, oblique
left lung 2 lobes: superior, inferior; 1 fissure: oblique
secondary bronchus each lobe as its own
bronchopulmonary segments each lobe consists of these. 10 on the right, 9 on the left
alveoli microscopic air sacs; type 1 cells in the wall, simple squamous epithelium; type 2 cells secrete surfactant; dust cells are macrophages
conducting zone trachea, primary bronchi, secondary bronchi, tertiary bronchi, terminal bronchioles
respiratory zone respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveoli
respiratory membrane very thin wall in alveolus through which gasses can easily diffuse
intrapulmonary pressure pressure of air in alveoli
intrapleural pressure pressure of air in pleural cavity
transpulmonary pressure difference between intrapleural pressure and intrapulmonary pressure
pneumothorax air enters pleural cavity
hemothorax blood enters the pleural cavity
tidal volume the volume of air which moves in and out of the lungs with a normal breath (400-500 ml)
expiratory reserve volume the volume of air, beyond tidal volume which can be forcibly expired
inspiratory reserve volume the volume of air, beyond tidal volume, which can be forcibly inhaled
residual volume the volume of air which remains in the lungs after forcible expiration
vital capacity sum of tidal volume+inspiratory volume+expiratory volume
total lung capacity tidal volume+inspiratory volume+expiratory volume+residual volume
daltons law each individual gas in air contributes to the total pressure in proportion to its concentration and each individual gas is said to have a partial pressure in proportion to its concentration in the air
atmospheric air 78% nitrogen; 21% oxygen; .5% water; .04% carbon dioxide; .46% other gases
henrys law when a mixture of gases is in contact with a liquid, each gas will dissolve in the liquid in proportion to both its solubility and its partial pressure; the solubility of any gas is a constant which never changes
Created by: shill14