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Promomotion Board E5


. When was the American Continental Army Established? 14 June 1775 ​
. How many Campaign and Battle Streamers does the Army Flag have? Over 180
What does the Uniform of the Army represent for Soldiers? For Soldiers it means that they have become part of something far bigger than themselves, a chance to serve their Country and to Change the World. It also means danger, long separations, grinding fatigue, and stress.
What does the uniform of the Army represent for Families? a source of both Pride and Anxiety, knowing the sacrifices ahead
. What does the uniform of the Army represent for Veterans? : one of the most important periods of their lives, pride in awards and decorations, and sometimes intense emotional and physical distress
What does the uniform of the Army represent for the American Civilians? Soldiers represent Patriotism and Selfless Service, men and women in whom the Nation takes collective pride
. What is the Land Domain? : it is the most complex of all Combat Domains and also where most countries are capable of having a defense as some are unable to afford Navies, Air Forces and other forms of defense.
What is Unified Land Operations? : It is the synchronization of our efforts between Joint Services, other government agencies, other partner Nations and other Military Forces from other partner nations
. What does ADP 1-02 cover? Operational Terms and Military Symbols
. What is one of the Most Important Elements of Military Force’s Ability to Communicate when Conducting Operations? A Common Set of Doctrinal Terms and Military Symbols
How do you give Shorter and Clearer Orders that Convey their information with Greater Speed and Less Risk of Misunderstanding? : By using Plain, Concise, and Understandable Language
What is the Principle of Simplicity? Increase the Probability that Plans and Operations will be Executed as Intended by preparing Clear, Uncomplicated Plans and Concise Orders
How does the Army Community develop a Common Language of Terminology and Symbolism : Through the Standardized Doctrine Development Processes
What is Doctrine? Fundamental Principles by which the Military Forces or Elements Guide their Actions in Support of National Objectives
What are the four Publication types of Doctrine that will be introduced to the Army? : Army Doctrine Publications (ADPs), Army Doctrine Reference Publications (ADRPs), Field Manuals (FMs), and Army Techniques Publications (ATPs)
Where did the term “Fires” Originate? From lessons learned after Operation Desert Storm against the Iraqi Army for the need to Coordinate the Delivery of Air, Land, and Maritime Assets in Time and Space against Targets to Enhance their Effectiveness
What is Joint Fires? Fires Delivered from Two or More Forces to produce a Desired Effect to Support a Common Objective
Should terms and abbreviations be Classified or Unclassified? : Unclassified
Who Establishes the Policy for Establishing Doctrinal Terms? TRADOC
What does TRADOC stand for? : Training and Doctrine Command
. What is the definition of Communication? an Exchange of Meaning that is only complete when the Intended Meaning is Understood Precisely by the Intended Audience
What does the word “Repeat” mean? Firing at the Same Target with the Same Ammunition for Artillery and Mortar Fire
What does the phrase “Say again” mean : it Asks Someone to Repeat what he or she Previously Said
What is an Adversary? a Party Acknowledged as Potentially Hostile to a Friendly Party and against which the Use of Force may be Necessary or Needed
What is an Enemy Combatant? An Individual Engaged in Hostilities Against the United States or its Coalition Partners during an Armed Conflict.
. How are Acronyms Formed? From the Initial Letters of a Name or Parts of a Series of Words
What is a Military Symbol? A Graphic Representation of a Unit, Equipment, Installation, Activity, Control Measure, or Tactical Task Relevant to Military Operations that is used for Planning or to Represent the Common Operational Picture on a Map, Display, or Overlay
What is a Common Operational Picture? A Single Display of Relevant Information within a Commander’s Area of Interest Tailored to the User’s Requirements and Based on Common Data and Information shared by more than one Command
When using a Map or Other Graphical Representation, At a Minimum, What Should an Operations Center or Command Post’s Common Operational Picture show? Friendly and Enemy Units or Ships, Boundaries, Control Measures, or other Elements that the CDR Deems Necessary for Understanding the Common Operational Picture and the Operation and it Provide any observer a Basic Understanding of the Situation
What are the two Military Symbol Categories? : Framed and Unframed
What are the Framed Military Symbol Categories? Unit, Equipment, Installation, and Activity Symbols
What are the Unframed Military Symbol Categories? Control Measure and Tactical Task Mission Symbols
What Army Publication explains how to Build Symbols using Basic Components? ADRP 1-02
. What does ADP Stand for? Army Doctrine Publication
. What does ADRP Stand for? : Army Doctrine Reference Publication
What does ATP's Stand for? : Army Technical Publications
What does FM Stand for? Field Manual
. What does ADP 2-0 Cover? Intelligence
What are Hazards? : Conditions or Natural Phenomena able to Damage or Destroy Life, Vital Resources, and Institutions, or Prevent Mission Accomplishment
What is Intelligence? The Product resulting from the Collection, Processing, Integration, Evaluation, Analysis, and Interpretation of Available Information concerning Foreign Nations, Hostile or Potentially Hostile Forces or Elements, or Areas of Actual or Potential Operations
What is Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance? : Synchronizes and Integrates the Planning and Operation of Sensors, Assets, and Processing, Exploitation, and Dissemination Systems in Direct Support of Current and Future Operations
What does the Intelligence Warfighting Function provide Commanders? Provides the Commander with Intelligence to Plan, Prepare, Execute, and Assess Operations
What are the two Most Important Aspects of Intelligence? Enabling Mission Command and Providing Support to Commanders and Decision Makers
. How do Commanders provide Guidance and Continuous Feedback throughout Operations? : Providing Direction Stating Clear, Concise Commander’s Critical Information Requirements (CCIRs) Synchronizing the Intelligence Warfighting Function Participating in Planning Collaborating with the G-2/S-2 during the Execution of Operations
. What does the Intelligence Warfighting Function allow a Commander to Understand? ​ The Enemy, Terrain, and Civil Considerations
For the purposes of Intelligence the Term “Enemy” includes what? The Entire Range of Threats
For the purposes of Intelligence, the term “Terrain” also includes what? Weather because it will have an Impact on Operations
What is “Intelligence Support to Force Generation”? The Task of Generating Intelligence knowledge concerning an Operational Environment, Facilitating Future Intelligence Operations, and Tailoring the Force
What is “Intelligence support to Situational Understanding”? The Task of providing Information and Intelligence to Commanders to assist them in achieving a clear understanding of the Force’s current State with relation to the Threat and other relevant aspects of the Operational Environment
What is “Conduct Information Collection”? : The task that Synchronizes and Integrates the Planning and Employment of Sensors and Assets as well as the Processing, Exploitation, and Dissemination of Systems in Direct Support of Current and Future Operations
. What is “Intelligence Support to Targeting and Information Capabilities”? The Task of providing the Commander Information and Intelligence Support for Targeting to Achieve Lethal and Nonlethal Effects
What is Information Collection? An activity that Synchronizes and Integrates the Planning and Employment of Sensors and Assets as well as the Processing, Exploitation, and Dissemination of Systems in Direct Support of Current and Future Operations
What should the G-2/S-2 and G-3/S-3 Staffs work together on to Collect, Process, and Analyze Information for the Commander on? : 1. Threats 2. Terrain and Weather 3. Civil Considerations that affect Operations
. What are the three Information Collection Tasks? : 1. Plan Requirements and Assess Collection 2. Task and Direct Collection 3. Execute Collection
What are Shaping Operations? 1. Reconnaissance 2. Surveillance 3. Security Operations 4. Intelligence Operations
What type of Operation is a Commander’s Primary means to Plan, Organize and Execute Information Collection? Shaping Operations
Does the G-2/S-2 Staff Tasking Authority over the Information Collection of Assets? No they can recommend only to the G-3/S-3 Staff using the Orders Process
Who does the G-2/S-2 Staff Recommend tasking of Information Collection Assets and Capabilities to? The G-3/S-3 staff who will then use the Orders Process
What is considered Successful Information Collection Efforts? : The Timely collection and Reporting of Relevant and Accurate Information, which either Supports the Production of Intelligence or is Disseminated as Combat Information
What is the “Intelligence Enterprise”? The Sum total of the Intelligence Efforts of the Entire U.S. Intelligence Community
What is the “Intelligence Warfighting Function”? : The Army’s Contribution to the Intelligence Enterprise
What makes up the “Intelligence Enterprise”? : 1. All U.S. Intelligence Professionals 2. Sensors, Systems 3. Federated Organizations 4. Information 5. Processes supported by a Network-Enabled Architecture
What is the most important Element of the Intelligence Enterprise? The People that Make it Work
What will make the Intelligence Enterprise Ineffective? If there is no Collaboration between the Different Agencies
What is the Job of an Army Intelligence Analyst? To Leverage the Intelligence Enterprise to create a more comprehensive and detailed Assessment of Threats and Relevant aspects of the Operational Environment to facilitate Mission Command
What are Fusion Centers? Ad Hoc Cells designed to enable Lethal and Nonlethal Targeting, Facilitate Current or Future Operations, and inform Decision-making
. Who has the overall Responsibility and Management of the Intelligence Community? The Director of National Intelligence (DNI)
What are the Agencies that make up the Intelligence Community? (16) CIA, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of Energy, DoHS, Department of State, Department of the Treasury, DEA, FBI, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, National Reconnaissance Office, National Security Agency, USAF, Army, USCG, USMC, USN
What are the Intelligence Core Competencies? : 1. Intelligence Synchronization 2 Intelligence Operations 3. Intelligence Analysis
What must all Military Intelligence Units and military Intelligence Soldiers continuously Train on in order to maintain a High Degree of Proficiency? The Intelligence Core Competencies
What is Intelligence Synchronization? : The “Art” of Integrating Information Collection and Intelligence Analysis with Operations to Effectively and Efficiently support Decision-making
What are some Critical Aspects of Effective Intelligence Synchronization? Continuous Teamwork with the CDR across the Staff Expertise and Proficiency in info Collection and Leveraging the Intel Enterprise Mastery of the Intel Process A Collaborative Environment for Flexible, Creative Analysts to Solve complex situations
. What are the four Primary Means of Collecting Information? 1. Intelligence Operations 2. Reconnaissance 3. Surveillance 4. Security Operations
What are three Aspects that enable Effective Staff Support and Intelligence Analysis? : 1. Critical Thinking 2. Embracing Ambiguity 3. Collaboration
What is Critical Thinking? : Disciplined and Self-Reflective, provides more Holistic, Logical, and Unbiased Analysis and Conclusions
What are the six Interrelated Categories of Intelligence Operations? : 1. Planning and Direction 2. Collection 3. Processing and Exploitation 4. Analysis and Production 5. Dissemination and Integration 6. Evaluation and Feedback
What are the four Steps of the Army’s Intelligence Process? 1. Plan and Direct 2. Collect 3. Produce 4. Disseminate
What are the two Continuing Activities of the Army Intelligence Process? Analyze and Assess
What are two separate, but closely related components that Planning consists of? Conceptual and Detailed Planning
What is Conceptual Planning? Conceptual Planning involves understanding the Operational Environment and the problem, determining the Operation’s End State, and visualizing an Operational Approach
What is Detailed Planning? Detailed Planning translates the broad Operational Approach into a Complete and Practical Plan
What does the Intelligence Plan and Direct step develop for the Commander? Activities that identify Key Information Requirements for the Commander, Develop the means for satisfying those requirements, and posture the Unit for transition to the next Operation
What is the purpose of Intelligence Collection? A Collection is Synchronized to provide Critical Information at key times throughout the Phases of an Operation and during the Transition from one Operation to another Operation​
What is Intelligence Production? The Development of Intelligence through the Analysis of Collected Information and Existing Intelligence
What do Intelligence Analyst Produce? Analysts Create Intelligence Products, Conclusions, or Projections regarding Threats and Relevant Aspects of the Operational Environment to answer Known or Anticipated requirements in an Effective Format
What are the Building Blocks by which the Intelligence Warfighting Function Facilitate situational understanding and supports Decision-making? A All-Source Intelligence and Single-Source Intelligence​
What is All-Source Intelligence? The Integration of Intelligence and Information from all relevant sources in order to Analyze Situations or Conditions that impact Operations
Which Source of Intelligence is more Reliable and less Susceptible to Deception? All-Source Intelligence
How is Single-Source Intelligence gathered? Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Security Operations​
What are the Seven “Intelligence Disciplines”? : Counterintelligence (CI) Geospatial Intelligence (GEOINT). Human Intelligence (HUMINT). Measurement and Signature Intelligence (MASINT). Open-Source Intelligence (OSINT) . Signals Intelligence (SIGINT).. Technical Intelligence (TECHINT).
What is The United States Army? America’s Sons and Daughters, Men and Women of Courage and Character, and Leaders of consequence—bonded together in a Profession of Arms—Organized, Trained, and Equipped to be the most Decisive Land Force in the World
What do Operational Variables PMESII-PT consist of? Political, Military, Economic, Social, Information, Infrastructure, Physical Environment, Time (PMESII-PT)
What is the Operational Environment? A Composite of the Conditions, Circumstances, and Influences that affect the Employment of Capabilities and Bear on the decisions of the Commander
Army Leaders Plan, Prepare, Execute, and Assess Operations by Analyzing the Operational Environment by using what Variables? Operational Variables and Mission Variables
. What do Mission Variables ( METT-TC) consist of? Mission, Enemy, Terrain and Weather, Troops and Support available, Time available, Civil Considerations
What does PMESII-PT stand for? Political, Military, Economic, Social, Information, Infrastructure, Physical Environment, Time
. What are the most likely Security Threats that Army Forces will Encounter? : Hybrid Threats
What are Hybrid Threats? The Diverse and Dynamic combination of Regular Forces, Irregular Forces, Terrorist Forces, Criminal Elements, or a combination of these forces and elements all unified to achieve mutually benefitting effects
. What are the two most challenging potential Enemy Threats that the U.S. face? A Nonstate Entity and a Nuclear-Capable Nation-State partnered with one or more Nonstate Actors
What is a Nonstate Enemy Threat? Entity possessing Weapons of Mass Destruction or other unique methods to challenge U.S. Dominance by Attacking Public Will
What is a Nuclear-capable Nation-State? Can employ advanced Information Technology, Conventional Military Forces armed with Modern Equipment, and Irregular Forces at various levels of Organization, Training, and Equipment.
What is the Army’s two Core Competencies? Combined Arms Maneuver and Wide Area Security
What is the Philosophy of Mission Command? The Exercise of Authority and Direction by the Commander using Mission Orders to enable disciplined initiative within the Commander’s Intent
How does the Army Seize, Retain and Exploit the Initiative? By striking the Enemy, both Lethally and Nonlethally, in time, places, or manners for which the Enemy is not prepared
What is Seizing the Initiative? Setting and Dictating the Terms of Action
. From an Enemy point of view, what must U.S. Operations be? : Rapid, Unpredictable, and Disorienting
. How do Army Forces conduct Decisive and Sustainable Land Operations? Through the simultaneous combination of Offensive, Defensive, and Stability Operations
What are Offensive Operations? Operations conducted to Defeat and Destroy Enemy Forces and Seize terrain, Resources, and Population Centers
What are the types of Offensive Operations? : Movement to Contact, Attack, Exploitation, and Pursuit
What are the types of Defensive Operations? Mobile Defense, Area Defense, and Retrograde
What is the Mission Command Philosophy? The Exercise of Authority and Direction by the Commander using Mission Orders to enable Disciplined Initiative within the Commander’s Intent to empower Agile and Adaptive Leaders in the conduct of Unified Land Operations
What is an “Operation”? A Military Action, consisting of two of more related Tactical Actions, designed to achieve a Strategic Objective, in whole or in part
What is a Tactical Action? : A Battle or Engagement, Employing lethal or nonlethal Actions, designed for a specific purpose relative to the Enemy, the Terrain, Friendly Forces, or other entity
. What are the characteristics of an Army Operation? 1. Flexibility 2. Integration 3. Lethality 4. Adaptability 5. Depth 6. Synchronization
What can Leaders achieve by demonstrating flexibility? Tactical, Operational, and Strategic success
What does ADP 6-0 cover? Mission Command
What is a team? A team is a group of individuals or organizations that work together towards a common goal.
. How do staff members assist the commander? Staff assists the Commander in the details of planning, preparing, executing, and assessing by conducting the operations process.
What are the Principles that the Commander is guided by using the Mission Command Philosophy? Build cohesive teams through mutual trust 2. Create shared understanding 3. Provide a clear Commander’s intent 4. Exercise disciplined initiative 5. Use Mission Orders 6. Accept Prudent risk
What are the five systems included in the Mission Command System? : 1. Personnel 2. Networks 3. Information Systems 4. Processes and Procedures 5. Facilities and equipment
What is Mission Command? Mission command is the exercise of authority and direction by the commander using mission orders to enable disciplined initiative within the commander’s intent to empower agile and adaptive leaders in the conduct of unified land operations.
What is Leadership? the process of influencing people by providing purpose, direction, and motivation to accomplish the mission and improve the organization
What does ADP 6-22 cover? : Army Leadership
What is an Army Leader? Leadership is the process of influencing people by providing purpose, direction, and motivation to accomplish the mission and improve the organization
What is toxic leadership? Toxic leadership is a combination of self-centered attitudes, motivations, and behaviors that have adverse effects on subordinates, the organization, and mission performance.
Can a Toxic Leader still achieve results? Yes, but only Short Term results where followers respond to the positional power of their leader to fulfill requests
Which Leader competency categories does a Toxic Leader ignore when getting short term results? Leading and Developing Soldiers
What type of leader will learn from each decision and action; with guidance from superiors, the leader will grow in confidence? A Self-Aware Leader
What type of Leaders have the psychological and physical capacity to bounce back from life’s stressors to thrive in an era of high operational tempo and persistent conflict? Resilient and fit leaders
What is AR 600-20? Army Command Policy
. What are the three Levels of Leadership? Direct; Organizational; Strategic
Direct; Organizational; Strategic AAR’s, personal observations, and judgment
What does AR 27-10 CH 3 cover? UCMJ Nonjudicial Punishment
. What does the acronym MCM stand for? Manual for Courts Martial
What is One of the most effective Nonpunitive measures available to a commander? Extra training or instruction
How must the training or instruction be given? must relate directly to the deficiency observed and must be oriented to correct that particular deficiency
When can Extra training or instruction be given? Extra training or instruction may be conducted after duty hours
What is the maximum punishment for a Summary Article 15? 1. Extra duties for 14 days. 2. Restriction for 14 days. 3. Oral reprimand or admonition. 4. Any combination of the above.
What does the Acronym TASS stand for? Total Army School System
What is TASS? TASS is a composite school system made up of AA, ARNG, USAR, and Army civilian institutional training systems
What does ATP 6-22.1 Cover? The Counseling Process
What is Counseling? : Counseling is the process used by leaders to review with a subordinate the subordinate’s demonstrated performance and potential
What is the Army’s most important tool for developing future leaders at every level? Regular developmental counseling
What are The Three Major Categories of Developmental Counseling? : 1. Event counseling 2. Performance counseling 3. Professional growth counseling
What Provides a useful framework for Leaders to prepare for counseling? : DA Form 4856 (Developmental Counseling Form)
10 What are the Six Key elements of active listening? 1. Eye Contact 2. Body Posture 3. Head Nods 4. Facial Expressions 5. Verbal Expressions 6. Check for Understanding
What Publication Covers Rifle Marksmanship M16/M4 Series Weapons? : FM 3-22.9
What does ACOG Stand for? advanced combat optical gunsight
. What does PMI stand for? preliminary marksmanship instruction
4 What are the two primary components of a marksmanship training strategy? initial training and sustainment training
What Seven additional skills should Soldiers be trained on for a good unit level Marksmanship Program? 1. Semiautomatic and automatic fires. 2. Night fire. 3. Mission-oriented protective posture (MOPP) firing. . Firing using aiming devices. . Moving target training techniques. Squad designated marksman (SDM) training. Short-range marksmanship (SRM).
What three tools should NCO’s and Commanders use to develop a training plan and assess the marksmanship program in a unit? 1. Direct observation of training. 2. Spot checks. 3. Review of past training
Describe the M16-/M4-series weapons? A All M16-/M4-series weapons are magazine-fed, gas-operated, air-cooled, shoulder-fired 5.56-millimeter weapons
What is the weight of a M4 with 30 round magazine? 7.5 lbs
What is the weight of a M16A2/A3 with 30 round magazine? 8.79 lbs
What is the maximum range of a M16/M4 series weapons 3,600 meters
1 What is the maximum effective range of a M4 series weapon? 500 Point Targets and 600 for Area Targets
What is the muzzle velocity of a M4 series weapon? 2,970 fps
What are the different versions of the M4 Carbine? M4, the M4A1, and the M4 modular weapon system (MWS)
When does an M4 Carbine become a M4 MWS? The M4 carbine becomes the M4 MWS when the M4 adapter rail system (ARS) is installed
2 What is different between the M4 or M4 MWS and the M4A1? the M4 or M4 MWS fire 3 round burst and the M4A1 is fully automatic
What does ARS stand for? Adapter Rail System (ARS)
Adapter Rail System (ARS) Only the armorer
What may the user remove only to perform preventive maintenance checks and services (PMCS)? only the lower assembly
What is the M68 CCO? The M68 Close Combat Optic (CCO) is a reflex (nontelescopic) sight that is designed for the “two eyes open” method of sighting, but can be shot with only one eye open
What does the Acronym BUIS stand for? Back Up Iron Sights
What is the purpose of the BUIS? : If the M68 fails, the preserved BUIS can be flipped up and used to continue the mission
What is the ACOG? : The Advanced Combat Optic Gunsight (ACOG) is designed to provide enhanced target identification and hit probability for the M4A1 or M16-series weapon when firing as far as 800 meters (approximately 870 yards) away
79 What are the different types of Ammunition for the M4 & M16 Series weapons? Ball, Tracer, Dummy, Blank, Short Range, Armor Piercing
What is a Stoppage? A stoppage is a failure of an automatic or semiautomatic firearm to complete the cycle of operation
How different common Malfunctions are there? Four
What are the Different Types of common Malfunctions? Failure to Feed, Chamber or Lock 2. Failure to Fire 3. Failure to Extract 4. Failure to Eject
What are the Four Basic Firing Positions? Individual foxhole supported 2. Prone unsupported firing. 3. Prone supported firing. 4. Kneeling unsupported.
What are the Qualification Standards for a mechanical range? Expert 36-40 2. Sharpshooter 30-35 3. Marksman 23-29 4. Unqualified 22 and below
. What Publication Covers Map Reading and Land Navigation? TC 3-25.26
What does TC 3-25.26 Cover? Map Reading Land Navigation
What is the definition of Cartography? the art and science of expressing the known physical features of the earth graphically by maps and charts
What is the definition of a map? a graphic representation of a portion of the earth's surface drawn to scale, as seen from above
Who is responsible for securing maps for the unit? S2
What should you do with a map that is in danger of being captured? Destroy it
How many different sizes of maps are there? three
What are the different map sizes? 1. Small; Those maps with scales of 1:1,000,000 2. Medium; Those maps with scales larger than 1:1,000,000 but smaller than 1:75,000 3. Large; Those maps with scales of 1:75,000 and larger
How many different types of maps are there? A: Eight
Where will you find the Sheet Name of a Map? The sheet name is found in bold print at the center of the top and in the lower left area of the map margin
Where will you find the Sheet Number of a Map? : The sheet number is found in bold print in both the upper right and lower left areas of the margin, and in the center box of the adjoining sheets diagram, which is found in the lower right margin
1 Where will you find the Series Name of a Map? The map series name is found in the same bold print as the sheet number in the upper left corner of the margin
What are the different ways to Orient a Map? 1. Using a Compass 2. Using Terrain Association 3. Using Field-Expedient Methods
What are the Five Major Terrain Features? : 1. Hill 2. Saddle 3. Valley 4. Ridge 5. Depression
What are the Three Minor Terrain Features?: 1. Cut 2. Fill 1. Draw 2. Cliff 3. Spur
What are the Supplementary Terrain Features? : 1. Cut 2. Fill
What are the three different types of Contour? : 1. Index 2. Intermediate 3. Supplementary
What are the three different types of Slopes? 1. Gentle 2. Steep 3. Concave 4. Convex
1 What are the units of measurement are used for Direction? Degree. The most common unit of measure is the degree 2. Mil. Another unit of measure, the mil (abbreviated ), is used mainly in artillery, tank, and mortar gunnery 3. Grad. The grad is a metric unit of measure found on some foreign maps
How many units of measurement are used for Direction? Three
How close will a four digit grid be to a location? within 1,000 meters
How close will a six digit grid be to a location? within 100 meters
How close will an eight digit grid be to a location? within 10 meters
How are Distances are always measured? Distances are always measured RIGHT and UP
What are the Colors of a Military Map Black, Red-Brown, Green, Blue, Brown, Red (6)
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