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English #2

Grades 4 to 8: Parts of Speech

Common Noun Noun that are general names for people, places, things, and ideas (town)
Proper Nouns Noun that are specific names for people, places, things, and ideas (Sedalia)
Concrete Nouns Nouns that name people, places, and things that you can see (ball)
Abstract Nouns Nouns that are ideas, feelings, or questions (democracy)
Collective Nouns Nouns that name groups of people, places, or things (committee)
Compound Nouns Nouns made up of two or more words and may be one word, two words, or hyphenated words (baseball, electric guitar, jack-o'-lantern)
Possessive Nouns Nouns that tell who are what owns something
Possession by one cat Cat's cushion
Possession by more than one cat Cats' cushion
First Person Singlular Personal Pronoun I
First Person Plural Personal Pronoun We
Second Person Singlular or Plural Personal Pronoun You
Third Person Singlular Personal Pronouns He, She, It
Third Person Plural Personal Pronouns They
First Person Singlular Objective Personal Pronoun Me (Give the ball to me.)
First Person Plural Objective Personal Pronoun Us (Give the ball to us.)
Third Person Singlular Personal Objective Pronouns Him, Her (Give the ball to him. Give the ball to her.)
Third Person Plural Personal Objective Pronouns Them (Give the ball to them.)
First Person Singlular Possessive Pronoun Mine (The ball is mine.)
First Person Plural Possessive Pronoun Ours (The ball is ours.)
Second Person Singlular or Plural Possessive Pronoun Yours (The ball is yours.)
Third Person Singlular Personal Possessive Pronouns His, Her, Its (The ball is his. The ball is hers. The ball is its.)
First Person Singular Possessive Adjective My (It is my ball.)
First Person Plural Possessive Adjective Our (It is our ball.)
Second Person Singular Possessive Adjective Your (It is your ball.)
Third Person Singular Possessive Adjectives His, Hers, Its (It is his ball. It is her ball. It is its ball.)
Demonstrative Pronouns This, That, These, Those
Indefinite Pronouns All, any, anyone, both, each, either, every, everyone, everybody, many, neither, nobody, no one, nothing, other, several, some, somebody, someone,
Reflexive Pronouns Refer back to the subject nouns (I did it myself.)
Intensive Pronouns Pronouns that a reflexive, but refer back to the noun to emphasize it (We ourselves made the quilt.)
Interrogative Pronouns Who, Whom, Whose, Which, What
Which interrogative pronoun is used in the objective case? Whom (To whom should I address the letter?)
Linking Verbs Verbs that connect noun or adjectives to the subject of the sentence. (Sara was happy.)
Helping Verbs Verbs that "help" the main verb tell what happened in the past, is happening at present, or will happen in the future
How many helping verbs can a main verb have in one sentence? 3
Infinitive Verb preceded by the word "to." May be used as a noun, verb, or adjective
Present Tense of a Verb Happening now (The dog has fleas.)
Past Tense of a Veb Happened before now (The dog had fleas.)
Future Tense of a Verb Hasn't happened yet (The dog will get fleas.)
Present Perfect Tense of a Verb Has started in the past and is continuing (The dog has had fleas.)
Past Perfect Tense of a Verb Has finished before some other past action (The dog had had fleas for two years before he stopped scratching.)
Future Perfect Tense of a Verb Action will start and finish in the future (The vet will have given all of the puppies a flea collar two months after they are born.)
Present Participles of Verbs End in -ing and generally follow the helping verbs "for, to, and be"
Past Participles of Verbs End in -ed or -en, or -d, -t, or -n and follow the helping verbs "have or had"
Regular Verbs Verbs that can be changed from the present tense to the past tense by adding -ed or -d (walk, walked; help, helped)
Irregular Verbs Verbs that can only be changed from the present tense to the past tense by changing the form of the present tense verb (do, did, done)
Questions adjectives answer What kind of? How many? Which one?
Common Adjectives Adjectives that do not require a capital letter; friendly, mean, big, small, blue, green, pretty, ugly, happy, sad, etc.
Proper Adjectives Adjectives that require a capital letter; American, Spanish, Guatemalan, Canadian, Japanese, Asian, African, Victorian, etc.
Demonstrative Adjectives This, that, these, those (This hat is Mike's. That book is Maria's. These boots are Micah's. Those glasses are Mary's.)
What are the three degrees of adjectives? Positive: describes one thing. My outdoor cat, Morgana is fat; comparative: describes two things. Midnight is fatter than Morgana; Superlative: describes 3 or more things. Marissa is the fattest of our three cats.)
What are the three degrees of the adjective bad? Bad, worse, worst
What are the three degrees of the adjective good? Good, better, best
Questions adverbs answer How? When? Where? To what degree or extent?
What is a common suffix used to make adjectives into adverbs? -ly
Preposition One-, two-, or three-words that introduce a prepositional phrase [on, in between, in addition to]
Questions prepositions answer Where is something [in the car]? Where is something going [to the city]? When something is happening [in two days]?
Object of the prepositional phrase Noun that generally end the prepositional phrase [in the house--house if the object of the preposition in]
Coordinating Conjunctions FANBOYS [for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so]
Subordinating Conjunctions Connect dependent clauses to independent clauses
Examples of Subordinating Conjunctions Although, as as if, because, since, whenever, whereas, wherever, whether, while
Correlative Conjunctions Always used in pairs in a phrase or sentence even though they are often split apart [The hungry child ate not only the chips but also the cookie.]
Examples of Correlative Conjunctions both/and, either/or, neither/nor, not only/but also, whether/or
Adverbial Conjunctions Join clauses or sentences of equal importance [The milk was left on the counter overnight; consequently, it was too sour to use on my cereal.]
Examples of Adverbial Conjunctions accordingly, besides, consequently, furthermore, hence, however, likewise, moreover, nevertheless, so,still, therefore, thus
Interjections Words, phrases, and nonsense words that express strong feelings
Examples of Interjections aha, ahem, alas, all right, eureka, gracious, hello, help, hey, oh, oops, ouch, phew, thanks, ugh, well, wow, yikes, yippee, yuck
Prepositional Phrases under the bed, through the window, after the commercial, to the grocery store, on the computer, with the mouse,
Participial Phrases One or two words that begin with a participial which is a verb ending in -ing; walking the dog, washing the dishes, asking questions, munching popcorn
Infinitive Phrases Begin the word "to" followed by a verb; to go, to write, to verify, to care deeply; to boldly go where no one has gone before
Gerund Phrase Verbs ending in -ing that function as a noun; Going to college is expensive.
Appositive Way of renaming or clarifying a noun: Marissa, my cat, sleeps on my bed. "My cat" is the appositive set off by commas.
Subordinate Clauses Dependent Clauses (do not make a "stand by itself" sentence)
Principal Clauses Independent Clauses (do make a "stand by itself" sentence)
Example of a sentence with a simple subject Sara ate ice cream for dessert.
Example of a sentence with a compound subject Laura and Sara ate ice cream for dessert.
Micah drove his pickup to Smithton. Example of a sentence with a simple predicate (verb)
Micah took the garbage to the compost pile and dumped the trash. Example of a sentence with a compound predicate (verb)
Complete subject in this sentence: The St. John's Ice Cream Social is always on the last Sunday in June. The St. John's Ice Cream Social
Complete predicate in this sentence: The St. John's Ice Cream Social is always on the last Sunday in June. is always on the last Sunday in June
Which sentence is simple? a. The boys played baseball. b. After the game, the boys ran to the concession stand for drinks. The boys played baseball.
Which sentence is compound (S V, conjunction S V)? a. After the game, the boys ran to the concession stand for drinks. b. The girls played baseball and they beat the other team. The girls played baseball and they beat the other team.
Which sentence is complex? a. After the game, the boys ran to the concession stand for drinks. b. The boys played baseball. After the game, the boys ran to the concession stand for drinks.
Example of three declarative sentences a. Life is good. b. Maria is happy, but Kathleen is happier. c. I am almost finished with this set of English questions.
Example of three interrogative sentences a. What is the puppy's name? b. Where did you attend high school? c. What is your favorite color?
Example of three imperative sentences a. Do your homework. b. Wash the dishes. c. Drive to Versailles.
Example of three exclamatory sentences a. I got the job! b. The Kansas City Royals won the World Series! c. The church is on fire!
What is the setting of a story? Time and Place
Example of alliteration (repeated beginning of words) She sells sea shells at the seashore.
Example of allusion She runs her classroom like a prison camp.
Example of assonance (repeated vowel sounds) The engineer held the steering to steer the vehicle.
Example of cacophony (noisy or harsh combinations of sounds) In my class we have to find real world examples of cacophony and; the cacophony produced by city traffic at midday is a perfect real world example.
Example of hyperbole Old Mr. Smith has been teaching here since the Stone Age.
Which sentence uses imagery? a. Adam would not sit down at his desk. b. Adam's desk might well have been made of pins and needles. Adam's desk might well have been made of pins and needles.
Meter Rhythm made by stressed and unstressed syllables in poetry.
Mood Feeling of a story (happy, sad, gloomy, tense, scary, etc.)
Parable A story with a moral or religious lesson to be learned.
Example of personification (giving inanimate things actions of people) The cave yawned before me.
Cliches Overused sayings that have lost their original meaning but have meaning to us. For example: After surgery, she was as weak as a kitten.
Idioms Kirk: If we play our cards right, we may be able to find out when those whales are being released. Spock: How will playing cards help? (Captain James T. Kirk and Spock in Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home, 1986)
Created by: marybahner
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