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Med Term CH6

Med Term CH6 Lymphatic and Immune

anti- against
carcin/o cancerous
immun/o immune, protection, safe
lymph/o lymph, lymphatic tissue
lymphaden/o lymph node or gland
lymphangi/o lymph vessel
neo-, ne/o new, strange
-oma tumor, neoplasm
onc/o tumor
phag/o eat, swallow
-plasm formative material of cells
sarc/o flesh, connective tissue
splen/o spleen
-tic pertaining to
tox/o poison, poisonous
3 main functions of lymphatic system 1) absorb fat/ fat-soluble vit's through lacteals of sm intestine 2) remove waste products from tissues & cooperate w/ immune system in destroying invading pathogens 3) return filtered lymph to veins @ base of neck
food digested here small intestine
villi fingerlike projections that line small intestine that contain lacteals and blood vessels
lacteals specialized structures of lymphatic system that absorb fats that cannot be transported by bloodstream.
blood vessels of villi absorb nutrients, fats, & fat-soluble vitamins from digested food directly into blood stream for use throughout the body.
interstitial fluid aka intercellular or tissue fluid, plasma from arterial blood that flows out of arterioles & into capillaries, then into spaces btw cells of tissues
Interstitial fluid delivers nutrients, oxygen, & hormones to cells
When interstitial fluid leaves cells brings w/ it waste products & protein molecules created w/in cells. 90% of fluid returns to bloodstream
lymph made of of remaining 10% of returning interstitial fluid. Clear, watery fluid containing electrolytes & proteins.
lymph collects protein molecules created w/in cells as it leaves. Removes dead cells, debris, & pathogens from intercellular spaces
lymph enters very small capillaries w/in tissues then flows into progressively larger vessels & ducts as it travels upward toward neck
lymph plays an active role in cooperation with the______ immune system to protect the body against invading microorganisms & diseases.
lymphatic circulatory system works closely together with blood circulatory system, so sometimes called secondary circulatory system
lymphatic system depends on ____ to move fluid pumping motion of muscles
lymph flows in ______ direction one. From point of origin can only move upward until returns to circulatory system at base of neck.
blood is filtered by the _______ and waste products are excreted by the _______ kidneys / urinary system
lymph is filtered by _______ lymph nodes, which are located along lymphatic vessels & contain specialized cells of the immune system
lymphatic capillaries microscopic, blind-ended (sealed on one end) tubes located near surface of body w/ capillary walls only 1 cell in thickness
lymphatic vessels progressively larger vessels where the lymph flows from the capillaries. Deeper w/in tissues. Valves to prevent backflow.
right lymphatic duct collects lymph from rt side of head/ neck, upper rt quadranct & rt arm. Empties into rt subclavian vein.
subclavian vein proximal part of main vein of arm
thoracic duct largest lymphatic vessel in body, collects lymph from LT side of head & neck, upper LT quad of trunk, LT arm, & entire lower portion of trunk, &both legs. Empties into LT subclavian vein
lymph node small, bean-shaped, contains specialized lymphocytes capable of destroying pathogens. 400-700 along LG lymphatic vessels. 1/2 in abdomen
lymphocytes aka lymnphoid cells, destroy harmful substances such as bacteria, viruses, & malignant cells.
cervical lymph nodes located along the sides of the neck
axillary lymph nodes located under arms in armpits
inguinal lymph nodes located in inguinal (groin) area of lower abdomenb
lymphocytes aka lymphoid cells, leukocytes formed in bone marrow as stem cells. Defend body against antigens
antigen any substance that the body regards as being foreign. Viruses, bacteria, toxins, transplanted tissue
3 types of lymphocytes natural killer cells, B cells, & T cells
lymphocytes do this in lymphoid tissues throughout body undergo maturation & differentiation
lymphocyte maturation process of becoming mature
lymphocyte differentiation to be modified to perform a specific function. Become specialized antibodies capable of attacking specific antigens
natural killer cells aka NK cells, play important role in killing of cancer cells & cells infected by viruses
B cells aka B lymphocytes, specialized that produce antibodies to destroy a specific antigen.
B cells most effective against viruses & bacteria that are circulating in the blood.
When does B cell transform into plasma cell? when confronted w/ the antigen, secrete large volume of antibodies coded to destroy specific antigens
T cells aka T lymphocytes, origin thymus. Play central role in cell-mediated immunity
cytokines group of proteins such as interferons & interleukins released primarily by T cells.
interferons, why produced produced in response to presence of antigens, particularly viruses or tumor cells.
interferons do this activate immune system, fight viruses by slowing or stopping multiplication, & signal other cells to increase defenses.
lymphoid pertaining to the lymphatic system or resembling lymph or lymphatic tissue or resembling lymph/ lymphatic tissue
primary roles of lymphoid are in conjunction with the immune system
tonsils 3 masses of lymphoid tissue that form a protective ring around the back of the nose & upper throat
tonsils play an important role in the immune system by... preventing pathogens from entering the respiratory system when breathing through the nose & mouth
adenoids aka nasopharyngeal tonsils, located in nasopharynx, which is upper part of pharynx
palatine tonsils located on LT & RT sides of throat in area that is visible @ back of mouth
palatine hard & soft palates that form the roof of the mouth
lingual tonsils located @ base of tongue but not readily visible
lingual pertaining to the tongue
thymus mass of lymphoid tissue located above heart, reaches greatest size @ puberty & becomes smaller w/ age
thymus secretes a hormone that stimulates the maturation of lymphocytes into T cells, as part of endocrine system
T cells in thymus essential to immune system & leave thymus through the bloodstream & the lymphatic system
vermiform appendix aka appendix, hangs from lower portion of cecum - may play important role in immune system
cecum 1st section of large intestine
spleen sac-like mass of lymphoid tissue located in LT upper quad of abdomen, just inferior to diaphragm & posterior to stomach
what does spleen do? filters microorganisms & foreign material from blood. Forms lymphocytes & monocytes for immune system
These are specialized leukocytes found in spleen lymphocytes & monocytes
type of function from spleen hemolytic function of destroying worn-out erythrocytes & releasing their hemoglobin for reuse
Spleen stores/ maintains extra erythrocytes & maintains appropriate balance btw these cells & plasma of blood
primary function of immune system maintain good health & to protect body from harmful substances
Harmful substances the immune system protects body from pathogens, allergens, toxins, malignant cells
pathogens disease-producing microorganisms
allergens substances that produce allergic reactions
toxins poisonous or harmful substances
malignant cells potentially life-threatening cancer cells
Unlike other body systems, the immune system is not.... contained w/in a single set of organs or vessels. Instead, its functions use structures from several other body systems
1st lines of defense for immune system intact skin, respiratory system, digestive system, lymphatic system
intact skin wraps body in physical barrier to prevent invading organisms from entering body
intact means that there are no cuts, scrapes, open sores, or breaks in the skin.
acid mantle skin is covered in this & it makes it inhospitable environment for most bacteria
respiratory system (w/ immune) traps breathed-in foreign matter w/ nose hairs & moist mucous membrane lining of respiratory system. Coughing/ sneezing
digestive system uses acids & enzymes produced by stomach to destroy invaders that are swallowed or consumed w/ food
lymphatic system structures work together in specific ways to attack & destroy pathogens that have succeeded in entering the body
antigen-antibody reaction aka immune reaction, involves binding antigens to antibodies. Labels dangerous antigen to be recognized/ destroyed
tolerance an acquired unresponsiveness to a specific antigen.
Immuniglobin G IgG, most abundant antibodies, in blood serum & lymph, active against bacteria-fungi-viruses-foreign particles
Immuniglobin A IgA, antibodies against ingested antigens, found in body secretions saliva-sweat-tears, function to prevent attachment of viruses & bacteria to epithelial surfaces that line most organs
Immuniglobin M IgM, antibodies found in circulating body fluids, 1st antibodies to appear in response to initial exposure or antigen
Immuniglobin D IgD, antibodies found only on surface of B cells, important in B cell activation
Immuniglobin E IgE, class of antibodies produced in lungs-skin-mucous membranes, responsible for all allergic reactions.
antibody disease-fighting protein created by immune system in response to presence of specific antigen
antibody/ immunnoglobulin often used interchangeably
immunoglobins bind w/ specific antigens in antigen-antibody response. 5 primary: G, A, M, D, E, secreted by plasma cells
phagocytes specialized leukocytes act as part of antigen-antibody reaction by destroying cell debris, dust, pollen, pathogens by phagocytosis
phagocytosis process of destroying pathogens by surrounding & swallowing them.
Phagocytes include: monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, & mast cells
monocytes leukocytes that provide immunological defenses against many infectious organisms. Replenish macrophages & dendritic cells
macrophage derived from monocytes after leave bloodstream & enter tissue. WBC that surrounds & kills invading cells. Remove dead cells & stimulate action of other immune cells
dendritic cells specialized WBC's that patrol body searching for antigens that produce infections. Grabs it, swallows it, & alerts B & T cells
complement system group of proteins that normally circulate in blood in an inactive form. Complement ability of antibodies when needed
complement to complete or make whole
immunity state of being resistant to a specific disease. Natural or acquired
natural immunity aka passive immunity, resistance to disease present w/o administration of an antigen or exposure to disease.
natural immunity is present at... birth & can be augmented when breast milk passes from nursing mother to baby.
acquired immunity obtained by having had a contagious disease.
vaccinated provides protection against a contagious disease w/o having been exposed to the risk of actually having the disease
vaccine preparation containing an antigen, consisting of whole or partial disease-causing organisms which are killed or weakened
vaccination provides protection against disease. Some need periodic booster
allergist specializes in diagnosing & treating conditions of altered immunologic reactivity, such as allergic reactions
immunologist specializes in diagnosing & treating disorders of the immune system
lymphologist physician who specializes in diagnosing & treating disorders of lymphatic system.
oncologist physician who specializes in diagnosing & treating malignant disorders such as tumors & cancer
lymphadenitis aka swollen glands, inflammation of lymph nodes, frequent indication of infection
lymph nodes/ lymph glands used interchangeably
lymphadenopathy any disease process affecting a lymph node or nodes
lymphangioma benign tumor formed by an abnormal collection of lymphatic vessels due to a congenital malformation of lymphatic system
ruptured spleen medical emergency that occurs when the covering of the spleen is torn, usually from blow to abdomen
splenorrhagia bleeding from spleen
splenomegaly abnormal enlargement of spleen. Can be due to bleeding from injury, infectious disease, or abnormal functioning of immune s
lymphoscintigraphy diagnostic test performed to detect damage or malformations of lymphatic vessels. Radioactive substance injected into ducts
lymphedema swelling of the tissues due to abnormal accumulation of lymph fluid w/in the tissues - damage preventing lymph from draining
primary lymphedema hereditary condition of lymphatic system that develops w/ swelling in feet, then ankles, & upward. Frequent- females
secondary lymphedema damage to lymphatic vessels most frequently due to cancer treatment, surgery, trauma, or burns
primary/ secondary lymphedema treatment compression/ exercise to control swelling & minimize infections. cannot be cured
bioimpedance spectroscopy noninvasive method of diagnosing lymphedema. Measures resistance to an electrical current passed through limb
effectiveness of immune system depends on individual's: General health, age, heredity
Age and the immune system older have more acquired immunity but responds slower to new challenges. Babies & young little acquired immunity.
heredity and the immune system genes & genetic disorders affect the individual's general health & functioning
allergy aka hypersensitivity, overreaction by body to a particular antigen.
allergen substance that produces an allergic reaction to an individual
localized allergic response aka cellular response, includes redness-itching-burning where skin is in contact w/ allergen. More exposure = more severe
systemic reaction aka anaphylaxis or anaphylactic shock, severe response to an allergen. Develop quickly & can die w/in minutes
scratch test diagnostic test to ID commonly troublesome allergens such as tree pollen. Swelling/ itching indicate allergy
allergen-specific immunoglobulin E IgE, blood test can determine substance allergy
antihistamines medications administered to relieve or prevent symptoms of allergies. Prevent the histamine
histamine substance produced by the body that causes the itching, sneezing, runny nose, & watery eyes of allergic reaction
autoimmune disorder aka autoimmune disease, any of a large group of diseases characterized by condition in which immune system produces antibodies against its own tissues
% of Americans w/ autoimmune disorder 3% of Americans w/ women affected 2.7 x's more than men. Affect most body systems.
immunodeficiency disorder occurs when the immune response is compromised
compromised weakened or not functioning properly
severe combined immunodeficiency SCID, inherited condition which abnormalities in immune system cause increased susceptibility to infection & failure to thrive as result of infections
Rheumatoid Arthritis affects joints & connective tissue of skeletal system
Myasthenia gravis affects nerve & muscle synapses of muscular system
Pernicious anemia affects RBC's of cardiovascular system
Crohn's disease affects intestines, ileum, or colon of the digestive system
multiple sclerosis affects the brain & spinal cord of the nervous system
scleroderma affects the skin & connective tissues of the integumentary system
Graves' disease affects the thyroid gland of the endocrine system
Human immunodeficiency virus HIV, bloodborne infection where virus damages or kills T cells of immune system, causing it to progressively fail.
opportunistic infection caused by pathogen that does not normally produce an illness in healthy humans. When host debilitated, causes infection
debilitated weakened by another condition
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS, most advanced & fatal stage of an HIV infection
Treatment for HIV regimen of antiretroviral drugs "cocktail" b/c must be taken in combination w/ ea other. Help control impact of disease.
Kaposi's sarcoma opportunistic infection frequently assoc. w/ HIV. Cancer causes patches of abnormal tissue to grow under skin in mouth, nose, throat or other organs
ELISA acronym for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, blood test used to screen for HIV antibodies, Lyme disease, & others
western blot test blood test that is more accurate than ELISA, confirms diagnosis when positive ELISA.
Pathologies associated w/ AIDS Central Nervous System (CNS) Meningitis, Encephalitis, AIDS dementia
Pathologies associated w/ AIDS Tumors Lymphoma
Pathologies associated w/ AIDS Large Intestine Colitis
Pathologies associated w/ AIDS Mouth Herpes labialis, Oral thrush
Pathologies associated w/ AIDS Lung Pneumonia
Pathologies associated w/ AIDS Kidney AIDS nephropathy
Pathologies associated w/ AIDS Small Intestine Malabsoption
Pathologies associated w/ AIDS Skin Dermatitis, Folliculitis, Impetigo, Kaposi's sarcoma
immunotherapy aka biological therapy, disease treatment that involves either stimulating or repressing immune response
stimulate cause greater activity
repress decrease or stop a normal response
Immunotherapy in treatment of cancers used to stimulate the immune response to fight malignancy
immunotherapy in treatment of allergies aka allergy desensitization, used to repress the body's sensitivity to a particular allergen.
synthetic immunoglobulins aka immune serum, used as post-exposure preventative measure against certain viruses, including rabies & some hepatitis
post-exposure patient has been exposed to virus, goal is to prevent disease from developing by providing temp immunity
synthetic interferon used in treatment of multiple sclerosis, hep C, & some cancers
monoclonal antibodies any of a class of antibodies artificially produced in lab by identical offspring of a clone of specific cells. Enhance immune response.
monoclonal pertaining to a single clone of cells
clone an exact replica of a group of bacteria
immunosuppression treatment to repress or interfere w/ ability of the immune system to respond to stimulation by antigens.
immunosuppressant substance that prevents or reduces body's normal immune response. Meds to prevent donor rejection
corticosteroid drug hormone-like preparation administered primarily as an anti-inflammatory & immunosuppressant.
cytotoxic drug medication that kills or damages cells. Used as immunosuppressants or antineoplastics.
pathogen microorganism that causes a disease in humans
microorganism living organism that is so small it can only by seen w/ aid of microscope
pathogenic capable of producing disease
bacteria one-celled microscopic organisms. Most not harmful
bacilli rod-shaped, spore-forming bacteria
anthrax contagious disease that can be transmitted through livestock infected w/ bacillus anthracis, in labs for biological warfare
rickettsia small bacterium that lives in lice, fleas, ticks, mites
Rocky Mountain spotted fever caused by a rickettsia that is transmitted to humans by bite of infected tick
spirochetes long, slender, spiral-shaped bacteria that have flexible walls & are capable of movement
Lyme disease comes from LIME, transmitted to humans by tick bite that has had contact w/ deer infected w/ spirochete borrelia burgdorferi
Lyme disease symtoms fever, headache, fatigue, skin rash known as erythema migrans. Untreated can spread to joints, heart, CNS.
Lyme disease name comes from First diagnosed in Old Lyme, Connecticut
Syphilis is also caused by... spirochetes
staphylococci group of approx 30 species of bactera that form irregular groups or clusters resembling grapes. Most harmless, on skin/ mucous.
staphylococcus aureus aka staph aureus, form of staph that infects wounds & causes serious problems like TSS or food poisoning
streptococci bacteria that form a chain. Most harmless, but can cause strep throat, meningitis, endocarditis, necrotizing fasciitis
strept/o twisted chain
-cocci spherical bacteria
antibiotic-resistant bacteria occur when antibiotics fail to kill all of the bacteria they target. Surviving bacteria resistant to drug. Can be severe/ fatal.
methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA, resistant to most antibiotics, small red bumps w/ black top that become abscesses, serious or fatal
fungus simple parasitic organism, some harmless some pathogenic
tinea pedis aka athlete's foot, fungal infection that develops btw toes
yeast type of fungus
candidiasis aka yeast infection, occur on skin or mucous mem. in warm, moist areas like vagina or mouth - from Candida albicans
oral thrush yeast infection that occurs in mouth
vaginal candidiasis yeast infection that occurs in vagina
parasite plant or animal that lives on or w/in another living organism at expense of that organism
malaria cause caused by a parasite that lives in certain mosquitoes & transferred to humans by bite.
malaria symtoms develop in 1-4 wks from infection: fever, shaking, chills, headache, muscle aches, fatigue.
infections from parasites malaria, toxoplasmosis
toxoplasmosis parasite transmitted from pets to humans w/ contaminated feces.
toxoplasmosis & pregnancy cause disease in developing child like microcephalus or hydrocephalus
microcephalus abnormally small head & underdeveloped brain
hydrocephalus excess cerebrospinal fluid accumulates in ventricles of brain
infections from viruses Ebola, influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, rabies, west nile virus,
viruses very small infectious agents that live only by invading other cells. After invasion, reproduces & releases newly formed virus & spreads
Ebola cause rare & generally fatal disease transmitted by contact w/ any bodily fluids contaminated.
Ebola symptoms appear 21 days from exposure: high fever, vomiting, diarrhea. Later: massive internal bleeding & organ failure
influenza cause aka flu, highly contagious viral respiratory infection typically seasonal epidemics. Vaccine can protect.
influenza symptoms fever, sore throat, muscle aches, cough, runny nose, fatigue. Complications: pneumonia.
measles cause acute, highly contagious infection transmitted by respiratory droplets of the rubeola virus
measles symptoms red, itchy rash over entire body, high fever, runny nose, coughing. Complications photophobia
photophobia severe sensitivity to light
mumps actue viral infection w/ swelling of parotid glands, can also cause painful swelling of ovaries or testicles
parotid glands salivary glands located just in front of ears
rubella aka German measles, 3-day measles. Viral infection w/ low-grade fever, swollen glands, inflamed eyes, & fine pink rash.
Rubella and pregnancy can cause defects in developing fetus
rabies cause acute viral infection transmitted to humans from bite or saliva of infected animal. Need immediate treatment
rabid animal infected w/ rabies
rabies symtoms untreated, 30-90 days after infection almost always fatal.
west nile virus cause spread to humans by bite of an infected mosquito
west nile virus symtoms mild = flu-like, severe=spreads to spinal cord & brain.
Flavivirus genus West Nile virus and viruses that cause the mosquito-borne tropical disease dengue fever
Infections from Herpesviruses cytomegalovirus, varicella, herpes zoster, infectious mononucleosis, Epstein-Barr, herpes simplex
cytomegalovirus found in most body fluids, silent infection w/ no signs or symptoms, but serious if weakened immune system or transmitted to unborn child - disabilities
varicella cause aka chickenpox, caused by herpes virus varicella zoster & highly contagious.
varicella symptoms fever & rash consisting of hundreds of itchy, fluid-filled blisters that burst & form crusts.
herpes zoster aka shingles, acute viral infection characterized by painful skin eruptions that follow the underlying route of inflamed nerve
postherpetic neuralgia complication that may follow herpes zoster if nerve fibers have been damaged during outbreak. Persistent & severe pain
infectious mononucleosis aka mono, caused by Epstein-Barr virus. Fever, sore throat, enlarged lymph nodes. Sometimes swelling of spleen/ liver
antibiotics medications capable of inhibiting growth or killing pathogenic bacterial microorganisms. Effective for bacterial infections
inhibit slow the growth or development
antibiotics are not effective against this type of infection viral
antibiotics are effective against this type of infection bacterial
bactericide substance that causes death of bacteria, antibiotics include penicillins and cephalosporins
bacteriostatic agent slows or stops the growth of bacteria, antibiotics include tetracycline, sulfonamide, & erythromycin
antifungal agent that destroys or inhibits growth of fungi, antifungal ex is Lotrimin, known as an antimycotic
antiviral drug used to treat viral infections or to provide temporary immunity, ex is acyclovir.
oncology study of the prevention, causes, & treatment of tumors & cancer.
Cancer names & deaths in US most named for part of body where originated, can attack all systems, 2nd leading cause of death in US behind heart disease
tumor aka neoplasm, abnormal growth of body tissue. w/in the mass multip of cells is uncontrolled, abnormal, rapid, progressive
benign tumor not a form of cancer, & not life-threatening. Can cause damage as it grows to adjacent structures
benign not life-threatening
malignant tumor form of cancer capable of spreading to distant body sites or systems, & potentially life-threatening.
malignant becoming progressively worse & life-threatening
myosarcoma ex of malignant tumor derived from muscle tissue
angiogenesis process through which a tumor supports its growth by creating its own blood supply
antiangiogenesis form of treatment that disrupts blood supply to the tumor
cancer class of diseases characterized by uncontrolled division of cells & ability to invade other tissues by growth or metastasizing
metastasize to spread from one place to another - from primary to secondary site
Most common sites of metastatic tumors bones, liver, lungs
When cancer metastasizes, it often does so through the circulatory system or lymphatic system
metastasis process by which cancer is spread to new site, also describes tumor itself. transition
carcinoma malignant tumor that occurs in epithelial tissue, tend to infiltrate & produce metastases (new cancer sites)
carcinoma in situ malignant tumor in its original position that has not yet disturbed or invaded surrounding tissue
in situ place where cancer 1st occurred
adenocarcinoma any one of a large group of carcinomas derived from glandular tissues
sarcoma malignant tumor that arises from connective tissues, including hard, soft, & liquid.
sarc flesh
hard-tissue sarcomas arise from bone or cartilage
osteosarcoma hard-tissue sarcoma that involves upper shaft of the long bones, pelvis, or knee
soft-tissue sarcomas cancers of the muscle, fat, fibrous tissue, blood & lymphatic vessels, or other supporting tissue like synovial tissues
synovial tissues line cavities of joints
synovial sarcoma tumor of the tissues surrounding a synovial joint such as knees or elbows
liquid-tissue sarcomas arise from blood & lymph
leukemia cancer of the WBC's in the bone marrow
staging process of classifying tumors by how far the disease has progressed, potential for responding to therapy, & prognosis
cancer stages indicated by letters, #'s, Roman numerals
Stage I colorectal cancer cancerous tumor has formed w/in polyp inside colon but has yet to invade surrounding tissue
Stage II colorectal cancer cancer has invaded the underlying tissue
Stage III colorectal cancer cancer has spread to the underlying tissues & nearby lymph nodes
lymphoma general term applied to malignancies affecting lymphoid tissues: lymph nodes, spleen, liver, bone marrow
2 most common types of lymphoma Hodgkin's lymphoma & non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
Hodgkin's Lymphoma aka Hodgkin's disease, cancer of immune system distinguished by presence of large, cancerous lymphocytes: Reed-Sternberg cells, compromises ability to fight infection
Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma more common/ all other than Hodgkin's. Originate in lymphocytes, some agressive, others indolent
indolent slow growing
aggressive fast growing
breast cancer carcinoma that develops from cells of breast & can spread to adjacent lymph nodes & other body sites
ER-positive majority of all breast cancers, means they grow in response to the hormone estrogen
BRCA1 & BRCA2 genes BReast CAncer 1 & 2, abnormal genes that carry a higher risk of breast, ovarian, & certain other cancers. Inherited
Ductal carcinoma in situ DCIS, breast cancer @ earliest stage b4 cancer has broken through wall of milk duct, cure rate nearly 100%
infiltrating ductal carcinoma starts in milk duct & invades the fatty breast tissue outside the duct. Most common form of breast cancer
inflammatory breast cancer IBC, rate but aggressive form of breast cancer where cancer cells block lymphatic vessels in skin of breast. Grows rapidly
symptoms of inflammatory breast cancer pain, rapid increase in breast size, redness or rash on breast, swelling of nearby lymph nodes
male breast cancer can occur in the small amt of breast tissue, similar to those in women
stages of breast cancer 0, I, II, III, IV
Stage 0 breast cancer cancer cells found only in 1 location, such as ductal carcinoma in situ
Stage I breast cancer cancer cells have moved beyond duct but have not yet reached outside the breast into the lymph nodes
Stage II breast cancer cancer has increased in size, &/or has reached 1-3 axillary (armpit) lymph nodes
Stage III breast cancer cancer spread to cervical lymph nodes &/or tissues surrounding breast, like chest wall or skin/ Inflammatory breast cancer
Stage IV breast cancer cancer has spread to other organs, most commonly brain, lungs, liver, or bones. Invasive or metastatic cancer.
breast self-examination self-care procedure for early detection of breast cancer. Check for new lumps or changes to shape of nipple or skin changes
palpation of the breast test performed by a trained health care provider to check the texture, size, & consistency of breast
mammography radiographic exam of breasts to detect presence of tumors or precancerous cells
mamm/o breast
molecular breast imaging MBI, nuclear med technique using gamma radiation to detect potential tumors in particularly dense tissue
ultrasound often used as follow-up test when abnormality found by mammography
breast MRI uses magnets & radio wave, & insertion of a contrast medium IV, to get detailed info for those already diagnosed or high risk
needle breast biopsy x-ray or MRI guided needle used to remove small samples of tissue from breast for diagnosis/ planning treatment
Less painful and disfiguring than surgical biopsy needle breast biopsy
surgical biopsy removal of small piece of tissue for exam to confirm a diagnosis
sentinel node biopsy biopsy of 1st lymph node to come into contact w/ cancer cells as they leave organ of origination & start spreading into body
lymph node dissection surgical procedure in which all lymph nodes in major group are removed to determine or slow spread of cancer in area
lumpectomy surgical removal of only cancerous tissue w/ surrounding margin of normal tissue. Remainder of tissue not removed
mastectomy surgical removal of the entire breast & nipple, often includes removal of axillary lymph nodes under adjacent arm
radical mastectomy surgical removal of an entire breast & many surrounding tissues
modified radical mastectomy surgical removal of the entire breast & all of the acillary lymph nodes under adjacent arm
breast reconstruction alternative to wearing an external prosthesis
immediate breast reconstruction begins during same surgery as mastectomy when an "expander" is placed to replace the tissue that was removed
delayed breast reconstruction necessary if surgery followed by radiation.
most common forms of treatment for all types of cancer surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy
Cancer surgery remove malignancy + some surrounding tissue, 1 or more nearby lymph nodes. Also laser or cryo surgeries
Laser surgery for cancer targeted beams of light to destroy cancer cells
Cryosurgery for cancer cancerous cells frozen & destroyed using a substance such as liquid nitrogen
chemotherapy use of chemical agents & drugs in combinations selected to destroy malignant cells & tissues
chemoprevention use of natural or synthetic substances (drugs/vitamins) to reduce risk of developing cancer or to reduce chance of recurrence
antineoplastic medication that blocks development, growth, or proliferation of malignant cells
proliferation increase rapidly
cytotoxic drugs used for both immunosuppression & chemotherapy
radiation therapy goal of destroying only cancerous tissues while sparing healthy ones
brachytherapy use of radioactive materials in contact w/ or implanted into tissues to be treated
teletherapy radiation therapy administered @ a distance from the body.
tomotherapy combination of tomography w/ radiation therapy to precisely target tumor being treated. Radiation slice by slice to tumor
tom/o slice
targeted therapy a developing form of anticancer drug therapy that uses drugs or other substances to ID & attack specific cancer cells only
adjuvant therapy sometimes used after primary cancer treatments to decrease chance of recurrence.
adjuvant an agent intended to increase the effectiveness of a drug
adjuvant therapies chemotherapy, hormone therapy, radiation, immunotherapy, or targeted therapy
clinical trials testing new & promising cancer treatments not yet approved by FDA
A, Ab antibody
AG, Ag antigen
CA, Ca cancer
CIS carcinoma in situ
DCIS ductal carcinoma in situ
HZ herpes zoster
HL Hodgkin's lymphoma
IG immunoglobulin
LE lymphedma
MMR measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination
MET metastasis
met metastasize
NHL non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
VSZ varicella
Created by: kld0519
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