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Obstetrics

Chapter 18 pregnancy

QuestionAnswer
Chadwick's sign A blueish -violet hue to the cervix and vagina
Goodells sign Softening of the cervix , felt by the examiner
Embryo The name given to the product of conception from the second through The eighth week of pregnancy
Fetus The name given to the product of conception from the ninth week through the duration of the gestational period
Chloasma Mask of pregnancy
Linea nigra A dark line of pigmentation that may extend from the fundus to the symphysis Pubis during pregnancy
Striae gravidarum Stretch marks on the abdomen, thighs, and breasts during pregnancy
Quickening Movement by the fetus felt by the mother
Braxton hicks Irregular contractions of the uterus that occur throughout pregnancy
Ballottement A technique that causes the fetus to bounce within the amniotic fluid, with the examiner feeling it rebound quickly
Pregnancy known as gestational period 9 calendar months or 10 Luna months Forty weeks or 280 days 3 trimester - 3 months each trimester
Fertilization/ conception Union of a sperm and a mature ovum Takes place in outer third of Fallopian tube
Zygote Initial name for fertilized ovum
Embryo Name of product of conception from the second through eight week of pregnancy
Accessory structure of pregnancy / amniotic sac Also known as the fetal membrane Strong thin walled membranous sac that envelopes and protects the growing fetus
Amniotic sac/ fetal membrane Chorion = outer layer of the sac Amnion = inner layer of the sac Amnion fluid within sac to cushion and protect the fetus during pregnancy
Placenta / 3 functions Temporary organ of pregnancy provides for fetal respiration , nutrition , excretion Functions as an endocrine gland by producing hormones necessary for normal growth
HCG Human chrorionic gonadotropin Estrogen progesterone and HPL
HPL Human placental lactogen
Placenta 2 sides Maternal side ( attaches to the wall or uterus ) Has a beefy red appearance Fetal side - contains arteries and veins intertwining to form the umbilical Cord ( has a shiny slightly grey appearance ) Serves as a life line between mother and fetus
Transports nutrients and wastes to and from developing fetus Arises from the center of the placenta and attached to umbilicus of fetus Fetal side of placenta / umbilical cord
Amenorrhea Absence of menstrution
Changes in Uterus Small pear shaped organ before pregnancy / then expands to accommodate Growing fetus placenta amniotic sac , and fluid during pregnancy
Changes in vagina Bluish - violet hue due to increased blood supply in the cervix ... Increased vaginal discharge and heavy shedding due to increase of glycogen In vaginal cells
Leukorrhea Thick white vaginal discharge during pregnancy
Secretion of colostrum "Forerunner of breast milk" thin yellowish discharges from nipples
Hypotension During the second and third trimesters when supine Weight of the pregnant uterus presses against the descending aorta and inferior vena cava The mother may get hypotension making them dizzy / black outs due to the pressure
Urination / 1 st trimester More urine due to increasing size of the uterus creates pressure
Urination / 2 nd trimester Less urine uterus rises up out of the pelvis and the pressure on the bladder is relieved
Urination / 3 rd trimester More urine frequency returns due to pressure of the baby's head on the bladder
Wadding qait Wider stance due to softening of pelvic joints and relaxing of pelvic ligaments Causes an offset of center of gravity
Changes of skin Increased warm/ sweating due to metabolism increased activity of sweat glands Blemish / increase of sebaceous gland Chloasma / hype pigmentation on forehead cheeks and bridge of nose
A woman's body goes through changes except Changes in bone structure
Fetal heartbeat Ultrasound 8-10 weeks ( earliest 5-6 weeks) Fetoscope 18-20 weeks Normal range 120 to 160 bpm
Naegele's rule Subtract 3 months from LMP and then add 1 yr and 7 days
EDC Expected date of confinement
EDD Expected date of delivery
EDB Expected date of birth
Abortion Termination of pregnancy before the fetus has reached a viability ( an age at which the fetus could live outside of the uterine environment )
Abruptio placenta Premature separation of a normally implanted placenta from the uterine wall ( can occur after the pregnancy has passed 20 weeks gestation or during labor)
Ectopic pregnancy Tubular pregnancy Abnormal implantation of a fertilized egg(ovum) outside of the uterine cavity
Gestational diabetes Develop an inability to metabolize carbohydrates ( glucose intolerance) with resultant hyperglycemia
Hellp syndrome Serious obstetrical complication that occur in approximately 10 % of pregnant Women with pre- eclampsia or eclampsia
HELLP Hemolytic anemia , elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count
Hellp diagnosis Presents with malaise or a viral- type illness in 3rd trimester should be evaluated Lab test include CBC / liver functions test
Hydatidiform mole Abnormal condition that begins as a pregnancy and deviates from normal Development very early Also called molar pregnancy , hydratid mole Ovum deteriorates / chronic villi of placenta changes into a mass of cysts( resembling grapes)
Hyperemesis gravidarum Abnormal condition of pregnancy characterized by severe vomiting that results in maternal dehydration and weight loss
A molar pregnancy very quickly deviates from normal development And does not produce an embryo/ fetus True The rapid and abnormal cell division cannot sustain life
Incompetent cervix Condition in which cervical os dilates before the fetus reaches term without Labor or uterine contractions 2nd trimester / spontaneous abortion of fetus
Placenta previa Condition of pregnancy in which the placenta is implanted in the lower part of the uterus 3rd trimester ( classic symptoms) painless bleeding during 3rd trimester
PIH Pregnancy induced hypertension
Pregnancy induced hypertension Development of hypertension during pregnancy in women who had normal blood pressure readings prior to pregnancy
3 categories of PIH Gestational hypertension / develops after 20 weeks gestation no sign of Edema or Proteinuria Pre- eclampsia / after 20 weeks gestation with Proteinuria or edema Eclampsia / most servere hypertension - seizures
RH incompatibility In compatibility between an RH - neg mothers blood with her RH - positive baby's blood Causes mothers body to develope antibodies that's will destroy the RH - positive blood
Bloody show Occurs as a result of the softening , dialation, and effacement of the cervix in preparation for childbirth / vaginal discharge mixture of thick mucus and pink or dark brown blood
Lightening Settling of the fetal head into the pelvis Occurs a few weeks prior to the onset of labor
False contractions Irregular Not too frequent Shorter duration Not to intense Discomfort felt in abdomen / groin area Walking may relieve or decrease contractions Effacement nor dilation of cervix , no change
True contractions Regular More frequent Longer duration more intense Discomfort in lower back radiates to lower abdomen Feels like Menstual cramps Strengthen in contractions Cervix effaces and dilates
AFP screening Serum screening test for levels of alpha - feta protein in the blood Assists with the determination of the risk of birth defects : Spina bifida / Down's syndrome / trisomy 18 Test done 15/21 weeks gestation
Amniocentesis Passage of a needle into the amniotic sac for the removal of amniotic fluid for examination
Cesarean section Sx proceedure in which the abdomen and uterus are incised and a baby is delivered transabdominally
Chronic villus sampling Test preformed in 1st trimester to detect chromosomal abnormalities Small amount of placenta tissue is removed during 11-13 week contains same genetic data as the fetus Check for Down's syndrome
Fetal monitoring ( electronic ) Use of an Electronic device to monitor fetal heart rate and maternal uterine Contractions
Created by: Tbella