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Blood vessels

Circulatory System

What are the 3 types of blood vessels Arteries, capillaries, and veins
Arteries function Carry blood away from the heart to tissues. Delivers to capillary beds for gas, nutrient, and waste exchange. Thick walls that withstand high BP. NO VALVES. (15% of blood volume) (blood flow is slower)
Capillaries function, location, type of tissue, what layers does it have Connect smallest arteries to smallest veins. Location of exchange between blood and interstitial fluid. Simple squamous ET tube. No tunica media/externa.
Veins function Carry blood from tissues back to the heart. Thin, non-elastic, walls that can't withstand much pressure, but thicker than arteries. CONTAIN VALVES. (60% of volume at rest)
What are the three layers in the vessel walls from deep to superficial 1. Tunica interna (intima), 2. Tunica media 3. Tunica externa (adventitia)
Tunica interna (intima) Deepest layer, includes endothelial simple squamous lining, basement membrane , sparse layer of loose CT. Also has a thick layer on outer margin, internal elastic membrane (only arteries)
Tunica media Middle layer, sheets of smooth muscle in loose CT.
Tunica externa (adventitia) Outer layer,anchors vessel to adjacent tissues. In large veins and arteries it contains Vasa vasorum (blood supply for large vessels)
What are the 3 types of arteries Elastic (conducting/large), Muscular (distributing/medium), and Arterioles (small)
Elastic (conducting/large) arteries Tunica media: many elastic fibers, few muscle cells. Contains Vasa Vasorum. Ex: pulmonary trunk, aorta, common carotid, subclavian, common iliac
Vasa Vasorum Found in large veins/arteries. Serves as blood supply and nourishment for tunica adventitia and outer part of tunica media
Muscular (distributing/medium) arteries Make up majority of arteries. Tunica media has many muscle cells. Many are named after internal organ it feeds; Ex: external carotid, brachial, and femoral
Arterioles Smallest branches of arteries. Delivers blood to capillaries. Have little or no tunica externa. Has thin or incomplete tunica media
What are the 3 types of capillaries Continuous, fenestrated, and sinusoid
Continuous capillaries Complete basement membrane on outside with tunica intima inside. Intercellular cleft. Ex: skeletal/smooth muscle, and CT.
Fenestrated Capillaries Complete basement membrane on outside, tunica intima has small holes called fenestration's. Ex: kidney's, small intestine, choroid plexus
Sinusoid Capillaries Incomplete basement membrane, tunica intima has intercellular gaps for blood cells to pass through. Ex: Liver, bone marrow, spleen, anterior pituitary.
What are the 3 types of veins from smallest to largest 1. Venules, 2. Medium, and 3. Large
Venules Smallest veins that carry blood away from capillaries
Medium sized veins Thin tunica media (few muscle cells.) Thin tunica externa (horizontal bundles of elastic fibers.) Contains valves. EX: Radial, Ulnar, small/great saphenous
Large sized veins Tunica externa is very thick and tunica media is very thin. Ex: Inferior/superior vena cava, pulmonary, internal jugular.
Hepatic portal circulation Superior/inferior mesenteric and splenic veins pass blood flow into liver and through 2nd capillary bed. Then from the liver the hepatic vein returns to the inferior vena cava
BP definition Force exerted by blood on blood vessel walls
What is BP measured in Millimeters of mercury (mmHg)
Systolic pressure Maximum pressure exerted on blood vessel walls (first # in BP reading)
Diastolic pressure Minimum pressure exerted on blood vessel walls (second # in BP reading)
Hemodynamics Factors affecting circulation - velocity/volume of blood flow, and blood pressure
Varicose veins Twisted, dilated, superficial veins. Cause by leaking of valves of veins. Help with blackflow and pooling of blood.
What is the most common circulatory route Heart -> artery -> arteriole -> capillaries -> venules -> veins
Portal system Blood flows through 2 consecutive capillary networks before returning to heart -3 total in body - (hypothalamus/anterior pituitary, kidneys, intestine/liver)
Why can't we have artery anastomoses all over our body like in the brain/heart We could not regulate our BP
BHP "Blood Hydrostatic pressure" - Pressure exerted by the pumping of your heart which drives fluid OUT of the capillaries (high on arterial end, low on venous end)
BCOP "Blood colloid osmotic pressure" - A form of osmotic pressure exerted by plasma proteins (albumins) that pulls fluids INTO capillaries (same on arterial and venous ends)
Where are plasma proteins produced Liver (except globulins)
IFHP "Interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure" - Pressure in interstitial fluid that pulls fluid into the capillaries (always 0 no matter where - set point)
IFOP "Interstitial fluid osmotic pressure " - A form of osmotic pressure in the interstitial fluid that drives the fluid out of the capillaries (but is very low compared to BCOP and BHP)
NFP equation "Net Filtration Pressure" - factors pushing out-> (BHP + IFOP) - (BCOP + IFHP) <- factors pulling in
What do arterial pressures promote in capillary exchange Filtration
What do venous pressures promote in capillary exchange Reabsorption
To calculate the Net Hydrostatic Pressure along the whole capillary what do you do NFP result (artery) + NFP result (vein) = Net Hydrostatic Pressue. Ex: 10+(-9)=1
What happens to escaping fluid out of your capillaries Interstitial fluid and plasma proteins are collected by lymphatic capillaries (about 3 liters a day)
Diffusion in capillary exchange Easily moves things across capillaries that are lipid soluble (O2/CO2.) Larger proteins will be help back (channels, clefts, fenestration's)
Transcytosis in capillary exchange Moves material across in tiny vesicles by endocytosis/exocytosis (large lipid soluble molecules like insulin, albumin)
Filtration & absorption in capillary exchange Movement of bulk flow in large amounts, move in response to pressure, high -> low, faster than diffusion
Consequences of edema Circulatory shock, tissue necrosis, pulmonary edema (suffocation), cerebral edema (headache, seizure, coma)
Blood flow becomes _______ when vessels merge to form _____________ Faster/veins
What is venous return dependent on Skeletal muscle pump
The __________ the vessel the greater the __________ which ___________ blood pressure Longer/friction/increases
___ miles of vessels for 1 pound of _____ 200/fat (High BP in obese people)
Why do longer vessels produce higher BP The blood is having to use more pressure to increase the velocity of blood flow and length it needs to travel
What happens if you have an increase in blood viscosity (thickness) You will have increase in friction, decrease of flow resulting in increase in BP (dehydration & polycythemia)
What happens in smaller radii of vessels The smaller the radius the more friction and resistance. The average velocity of blood flow will also be lower and slower (fluctuations in BP)
What controls BP by changing its diameter Arterioles
What are 3 reasons the blood flow from the aorta to the capillaries decreases 1. Greater distance = greater friction, 2. Smaller radii of arteriole and capillaries, 3. The farther from the heart, the greater the cross section
What are 2 reasons the blood flow from the capillaries to the vena cava increases 1. Large amount of blood forced into smaller channels, 2. Never regains velocity of large arteries
The skeletal muscle pump process Muscles contract, squeeze veins, valves make blood go in one direction pushing it into the next set of valves.
Thoracic pump Thoracic cavity expands when you breath, increasing the volume and decreasing the pressure, abdominal pressure increases, forcing blood upward
Venous pooling (vascular shock) can cause Neurogenic shock, loss of vasomotor tone, vasodilation (emotional shock - brain stem injury)
Angiotensinogen Pro-hormone released by liver which stimulates the release of Renin (kidney enzyme for low BP) and they together activate angiotensin 1
Angiotensin 1 ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme in lungs, which blocks the enzyme lowering BP) converts angiotensin 1 into angiotensin 2
Angiotensin 2 Very potent vasoconstrictor, derives from angiotensin 1
What hormones help control BP/flow Angiotensin, aldosterone, ADH, Epinephrine & norepinephrine, atrial natiruretic factor
Atrial Natiruretic Factor Hormone and BP Increase urinary sodium excretion for generalized vasodilation (raise BP)
Aldosterone and BP Promotes Na+ and water retention by the kidneys, increases blood volume and pressure (activated by angiotensin 2)
ADH and BP Water retention, vasoconstrictor (activated by angiotensin 2)
Created by: Destynelamar