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A&P Tissues & Terms

Anatomy & Physiology Articulation/Joints Midterm Study

QuestionAnswer
SYNARTHROSES IMMOVABLE JOINTS. NO MOTION (Ex. Sternocostal, tibiofibular)
AMPHIARTHROSES SLIGHTLY MOVEABLE JOINTS (Ex. Vertebral Bodies, pubic bones)
DIARTHROSES FREELY MOVABLE JOINTS (Ex. most appendicular)
3 TYPES OF JOINTS: FIBROUS, CARTILAGINOUS, SYNOVIAL
FIBROUS JOINTS (SYNARTHROSES) FIBROUS JOINTS ONLY; NO CAVITY. FEW AMPHIARTHROTIC; MOSTLY SYNARTHROTIC
FIBROUS JOINTS: 3 TYPES SUTURES, SYNDESMOSES, GOMPHOSES
SUTURES (Ex. Skull, Interdigitating articulating bone. SUTURES CONTAIN: FIBROUS CT (Until adulthood when they OSSIFY (synostoses) BECOMING BONY JUNCTIONS
SYNDESMOSES (Ex. Tibiofibular joint, distal ends) BONES CONNECT VIA FILAMENTOUS SHEET OR CORD. FIBERS ARE LONGER THAN IN SUTURES, SLIGHTY MORE RESILIENT. (SYNARTHROTIC)
GOMPHOSES (Ex. Fibrous connection = periodontal ligament) ARTICULATION OF TOOTH WITH BONY AVEOLAR SOCKET.
FUNCTIONS OF FIBROUS JOINTS CONNECTS FLAT BONES LIKE A JIGSAW PUZZLE. FIBROUS BAND CALLED LIGAMENT CONNECT THE BONES. CONNECTS ROOT & JAW & TEETH TO SOCKET OF JAWBONE.
CARTILAGINOUS JOINTS (AMPHIARTHROSES) MOST CARTILAGINOUS JOINTS ALLOW SOME MOTION AND ARE AMPHIARTHROTIC. ARTICULATING BONES ARE UNITED BY CARTILAGE. LACK A JOINT CAVITY. CHONDR/O = CARTILAGE
CARTILAGINOUS JOINTS: 2 TYPES SYNCHONDROSES, SYMPHYSES
SYNCHONDROSES HYALINE CARTILAGE UNITES BONES AT A SYNCHONDROSIS (Temporary Joints; Sites of Bone Growth). CARTILAGE IS REPLACED BY BONE (SYNOSTOTIC) Ex. Synarthrotic Epiphyseal Plate and Manubrium/1st Rib & functionally amphiarthrotic ribs 2-10
SYMPHYSES ARTICULAR SURFACES OF BONE COVERED BY HYALINE CARTILAGE, FUSED TO A INTERVENING PAD OR PLATE. (Compressible, Resilient, Functionally Amphiarthrotic.) Ex. Pubic Symphysis (junction of pubic bones) and Intervertebral discs. Fibro cartilage between bones.
SYNOVIAL JOINTS (DIARTHROSES) MOST SYNOVIAL JOINTS ARE FILLED WITH SYNOVIAL FLUID , WHICH LUBRICATES THE JOINT. ARTICULAR BONES SEPARATED BY FLUID FILLED JOINT CAVITY.
SYNOVIAL: 5 JOINTS OF LIMBS; DIARTHROTIC 1 ARTICULAR CARTILAGE (HYALINE) 2 JOINT CAVITY 3 ARTICULAR CAPSULE (EXTERNAL FIBROUS CAPSULE & INTERNAL SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.) 4 SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE 5 REINFORCING LIGAMENTS: INTRINSIC, EXTRACAPSULAR, INTRACAPSULAR
SYNOVIAL JOINT AXIS OF MOTION: NONAXIAL, UNIAXIAL, BIAXIAL, MULTIAXIAL
NONAXIAL SLIPPING MOVEMENTS
UNIAXIAL MOVEMENT IN ONE PLANE (Phalanges, radius/ulna, femur/tibia)
BIAXIAL MOVEMENT IN TWO PLANES (Occipital bone/Atlas)
MULTIAXIAL MOVEMENT IN THREE PLANES (Scapula/Humerus, coxal bone/femur)
SYNOVIAL JOINT ROM - TYPE OF MOTIONS: GLIDING, ANGULAR, FLEXION, EXTENSION, ABDUCTION, ADDUCTION, CIRCUMDUCTION, ROTATION
GLIDING BONES DISPLACED IN RELATION TO ONE ANOTHER Ex. Intercarpal, inntertarsal, intervertebral joints.
ANGULAR CHANGES ANGLE BETWEEN TWO BONES. Ex. Increase/Decrease angle of a joint.
FLEXION/EXTENSION FLEXION: BENDING; DECREASING ANGLE. EXTENSION: STRETCHING; INCREASING ANGLE
ABDUCTION/ADDUCTION ABDUCTION: MOVE AWAY FROM MIDLINE. (Spread fingers apart) ADDUCTION: MOVE TOWARD MIDLINE (Close fingers together)
CIRCUMDUCTION DRAW AROUND, CONICAL SHAPE
ROTATION TURNING MOVEMENT OF A BONE AROUND ITS OWN AXIS. Ex. Atlas and Axis of the vertebrae.
SYNOVIAL JOINTS - TYPES: PLANE, CONDYLOID, SADDLE, HINGE, PIVOT, BALL-AND-SOCKET.
JOINTS ARE CLASSIFIED BY: STRUCTURE & FUNCTION
FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION: 3 TYPES SYNARTHROSES DIARTHROSES AMPHIARTHOSES
STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATION: 3 TYPES FIBROUS JOINTS CARTILAGINOUS JOINTS SYNOVIAL JOINTS
SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE SECRETES A WATERY FLUID CALLED SYNOVIAL FLUID
SYNOVIAL FLUID SIMILAR TO BLOOD PLASMA WITHOUT PROTEINS. PERMITS FRICTIONLESS MOTION.
JOINT CAPSULE MADE OF DENSE IRREGULAR COLLEGENOUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE. PROVIDES STRENGTH AND STRUCTURAL REINFORCEMENT. LINED BY SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.
ARTICULAR CARTILAGE ARTICULATING ENDS OF BONES AE COVERED (USUALLY HYALINE CARTILAGE). PROVIDES SMOOTH, NEARLY FRICTIONLESS SURFACE FOR ARTICULATION.
LIGAMENTS BONES ARE HELD TOGETHER BY LIGAMENTS. REINFORCE THE JOINT. INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC LIGAMENTS ARE A PART OF AND OUTSIDE THE JOINT CAPSULE.
ARTICULAR DISCS - MENISCI ARTICULAR DISCS OF FIBROCARTILAGE PADS. PROVIDE IMPROVED FIT OF TWO BONES TO PREVENT DISLOCATION
ACL/PCL - ANTERIOR/POSTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENTS ANTERIOR CRUCIATE: EXTENDS FROM ANT. TIBIAL PLATEAU TO LATERAL FEMORAL CONDYLE. FUNCTION: PREVENT HYPEREXTENSION OF KNEE POSTERIOR CRUIATE: EXTENDS FROM POST. TIBIAL PLATEAU TO MEDIAL FEMORAL. FUNCTION: PREVENT POST. DISPLACEMENT OF TIBIA ON FEMUR
MEDIAL/LATERAL COLLATERAL LIGAMENTS MLC/LCL MEDIAL AND LATERAL COLLATERAL LIGAMENTS EXTEND FROM MEDIAL TIBIA AND LATERAL FIBULA TO FEMUR. FUNCTION: RESIST VARUS AND VALGUS (MEDIAL AND LATERAL) STRESSES.
BURSAE FLUID FILLED SACS AROUND JOINT OF KNEE, TO REDUCE FRICTION AROUND KNEE AS IT MOVES.
SYNOVIAL JOINT TYPE MOVEMENTS: PLANE PLANE - FLAT SURFACES ALLOW GLIDING PAST OTHER BONES
SYNOVIAL JOINT TYPE MOVEMENTS: HINGE HINGE - ELBOW (CONVEX SURFACE OF ONE BONE, FITS INTO CONCAVE ARTICULATION SURFACE OF ANOTHER.) BONES FIT LIKE HINGE OF A DOOR.
SYNOVIAL JOINT TYPE MOVEMENTS: PIVOT PIVOT - BONE ROTATES AROUND ANOTHER. (USUALLY HAS A ROUNDED PROJECTION THAT FITS INTO ANOTHER GROOVE OF ANOTHER BONE.)
SYNOVIAL JOINT TYPE MOVEMENTS: CONDYLOID CONDYLOID - ONE BONE THAT FITS INTO THE CONCAVE SURFACE OF ANOTHER.
SYNOVIAL JOINT TYPE MOVEMENTS: SADDLE SADDLE - RESEMBLE CONDYLOID JOINTS BUT PERMIT GREATER RANGE OF MOVEMENT
SYNOVIAL JOINT TYPE MOVEMENTS: BALL-AND-SOCKET BALL-AND-JOINT ARE ROUNDED, BALL LIKE END OF BONE THAT FITS INTO THE CONCAVE SOCKET OF ANOTHER BONE (SHOULDER)
FLEXION MOVEMENT IN ANTERIOR/POSTERIOR PLANE. DECREASES ANGLE AT THE JOINT. (Ex. Neck, Head, Hip)
EXTENSION MOVEMENT IN ANTERIOR/POSTERIOR PLANE. INCREASES ANGLE AT THE JOINT. Ex. When laying flat, all major axis/appendicular skeletal joints are at full extension)
HYPEREXTENSION EXTENDS PAST ANATOMICAL POSITION.
FLEXION VERTEBREAL COLUMN BENDS TO SIDE AT CERVICAL/THROACIC REGIONS.
DORSIFLEXION MOVEMENT OF ANKLE THAT DECREASES ANGLE BETWEEN FOOT AND LEG.
PLANTAR FLEXION EXTENDS AT ANKLE (Pointing Toes, Standing on tiptoes)
MEDIAL/LATERAL ROTATION MEDIAL: TOWARD TRUNK (INTERNAL) (Palms down) LATERAL: OUTWARD/AWAY FROM TRUNK (EXTERNAL) (Palms up)
OPPOSITION TOUCHING THUMB TO PINKI. (1ST CARPOMETACARPAL TO THE 5TH METACARPOPHALANGEAL) AKA GRASPING
PROTRACTION/RETRACTION MOVING A BODY PART AWAY ANTERIORALLY IN HORIZONTAL PLANE. Ex. Extending jaw outward RETRACTION: Ex. Moving jaw inward to normal Ex. Clavicles protract when you cross your arms
DEPRESSION/ELEVATION DEPRESSION: BODY PART MOVES INFERIORLY - ELEVATION: LIFTING BODY STRUCTURE SUPERIORLY Ex. Opening and closing jaws/mouth.
INVERSION/EVERSION INVERSION: TWISTING OF FOOT INWARD, TURING SOLE INWARD, ELEVATING MEDIAL SOLE. EVERSION: TWISTING/TURNING OF FOOT OUTWARD
PRONATION TURNING PALM OVER TO FACE DOWN POSTERIORLY
SUPINATION TURNING PALM UP ANTERIORLY
Created by: MCasler