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Final - Med Term I

Exams 1-8

False True or False - A word cannot end with a combining form (word root + vowel).
False True or False - The definition of a medical word usually begins with defining the prefix first, the suffix second and the word root last.
False True or False - Paralysis occurring on only one half of the body is known as quadriplegia.
True True or False - Hyper-, hypo-, and poly- are all prefixes that indicate measurement.
False True or False - Bi-, mono-, and primi- are all prefixes that indicate position and/or direction.
True True or False - The suffix -cide means to kill or to destroy.
Plural form of thorax thoraces
Plural form of bacterium bacteria
Plural form of ganglion ganglia
Plural form of apex apices
eponym A name for a disease, organ, procedure, or body function that is derived from the name of a person.
Tetra four
Para near,beside,beyond
brady slow
peri around
half - semi
rapid tachy
outside ecto
not an
An abnormal accumulation of fluid (water) within the head is known as hydrocephalus
Uncontrolled, sudden attacks of sleep are known as narcolepsy
–ptosis drooping
-rrhaphy suturing
-gram record
-scopy process of viewing
suffix that means:toward, increase -ad
suffix that means:decrease in, deficiency -penia
suffix that means:blood condition -emia
suffix that means:sensitivity to pain -algesia
a vowel ending is placed at the end of the word root.
If a suffix begins with a consonant the root will need a combining vowel before attaching to the suffix
Which prefixes indicate the color red? eosin/o, erythr/o
Each of the following suffixes indicate "pertaining to" -al -ous -ic
The prefix -pan means: all
Compound words are usually composed in the following order: combining form + word root + suffix
3 suffixes that pertain to a surgical procedure -plasty, -pexy,-centesis
suffix with a similar meaning of –ula -ole
supra above, over
-megaly enlargement
-algia pain
-oid resembling
-tripsy intentional crushing
-lysis destruction or detachment
-genic pertaining to, formation, producing
-gravida pregnancy
-rrhagia excessive flow or discharge
-philia attracted to
-cele swelling or herniation
-lith stone
-desis binding or surgical fusion
-oma tumor
-ectomy surgical removal
-osis condition
Label on the body Plane: 1 frontal 2 medisagittal (divides the body into equal right and left portions)3transverse
Label the terms concerning the foot in the body plane diagram: dorsum and plantar
Name of the position of the body in Diagram (standing, arms at sides, Palms forward, head and feet pointing forward - anatomical
Identify the four types of tissues: Muscle - Produces movement of the parts and organs of the body,Connective-Binds other body tissue and parts; may be liquid,fatty,fibrous,cartilage,or solid.Neural-Transmits impulses throughout the body.Epithelial - Covers internal/external organs of body
Identify the three ventral cavity subdivisions: thoracic -- contains the lungs, heart, aorta, esophagus.abdominal-- contains the liver,gallbladder,spleen,stomach, pancreas.pelvic -- contains the urinary bladder and reproductive organs
The body position of lying horizontally on the back, face up is supine
A movement that allows the palms of the hands to turn upward or forward is supination
aplasia absence of formation
Incomplete or underdeveloped organ or tissue, usually the result of a decrease in the number of cells is hypoplasia.
An increase in the number of cells of a body part is hyperplasia.
True True or False - the umbilicus is landmark on the external abdominal wall for dividing the abdomen into quadrants(true or false)
False True or False - When tenderness exists upon Munro's point, a physician might suspect appendicitis. (true or false)
True True or False - The urinary bladder is located within the hypogastric region. (true or false)
True True or False - The definition of dysplasia is any abnormal development of tissues or organs. (true or false)
False True or False - The abbreviation RLQ stands for "right lumbar quarter"(true or false)
True True or False - Segments of chromosomes that transmit hereditary characteristics are called genes, (true or false)
The following terms use the midline of the body as reference points. Write the definition for the directional term, and then give the term that means the opposite. Deep- ? Opposite: superficial. Posterior -back, Opposite: anterior.Dorsal-back side,Opposite:ventral.Lateral- away from the midline,Opposite: medial.Inferior-towards the foot,Opposite:superior.Caudal-near the tail,Opposite:cranial. Distal-?,Opposite: ?
anter/o front
viscer/o internal organs
pelv/I pelvis
inguin/o groin
hist/o tissue
crani/o skull,cranium
thorac/o chest
ventr/o belly,front side
Label - parts of spine in diagram Lumbar –Coccyx-Cervical-Thoracic-Sacrum
Label the 9 abdominal regions in diagram (right and left lumbar, right and Ieft hypochondriac,right and left inguinal, hypogastric, epigastric, and umbilical)
Circumscribed, slightly elevated lesions of the skin that are paler in the center than its surrounding edges are known as: hives
A small thin-walled skin lesion containing clear fluid; a blister is a vesicle
A small elevation of the skin filled with pus is a pustule
A small, flat discoloration of the skin that is neither raised nor depressed is a macule
A small, solid, circumscribed elevation on the skin is a papule
The word element that means fungus is myc/o
The most common malignant tumor of the epithelial tissue occurring most often on areas of skin exposed to the sun is basal cell carcinoma
substance secreted by the sebaceous gland sebum
A large blister is know as a bulla
the removal of debris, foreign objects, and damaged or necrotic tissue from a wound debridement
adip/o fat
onych/o nail
caut/o burn
trich/o hair
cutane/o skin
white l euko
sweat hidr/o
scales ichthy/o ?
dryness xero
yellow xantho
A localized pus-producing infection originating deep in a hair follicle; a boil furuncle
Cicatrix A scar
A scraping or rubbing away of skin or mucous membrane as a result of friction to the area. Abrasion
Onychomycosis Any fungal infection of the nails.
Stratum basale The layer of skin where new cells are continually being reproduced, pushing older cells toward the outermost surface of the skin.
Stratum corneum The outermost layer of the epidermis, consisting of dead cells that have converted to keratin.
Pruritis itching.
Gangrene Death of tissue; usually the result of ischemia, bacterial invasion, and subsequent decaying of tissue.
Cyanosis A condition of a bluish discoloration of the skin.
Hemangioma A benign tumor consisting of a mass of blood vessels and has a reddish-purple color.
ID intradermal
SLE systemic lupus erythematosus
I&D incision and drainage
SC subcutaneous
TENS transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation
EAHF eczema,asthma, and hay fever
True or False - A noninvasive treatment that uses subfreezing temperature to freeze and destroy tissue is cautery. True
True or False - Tinea capitis is also known as ringworm of the scalp True
True or False - Tinea pedis is also known as ringworm of the body. False
True or False - Removal of the epidermis and a portion of the dermis with sandpaper or brushes is known as dermatoplasty. False
True or False - A carbuncle is a circumscribed inflammation of the skin and deeper tissues that contains pus. True
True or False - Sebum is the substance secreted by the ceruminous gland False
Label Layers of the skin in diagram — Epidermis,Dermis,Subcutaneous
Label Accessory Structures of skin in diagram— hair follicle,pore,?,sebaceous gland,nerve fiber,sudoriferous gland,?,adipose tissue
Aniso unequal
immun/o immune, protection
phag/o to eat
-philia attraction to
chrom/o color
lymphaden/o lymph gland
lymph/o lymph
lymphangi/o lymph vessel
blast/o embryonic stage of development
thromb/o clot
myel/o bone marrow or spinal cord
-globin containing protein
sarc/o flesh
-stasis stopping or controlling
-poiesis formation
The process of transforming a liquid into a solid, especially of the blood is known as coagulation
a stringy, insoluble protein that is the substance of a blood clot fibrin
An increased level of albumin in the blood is hyperalbuminemia
Purpura is a collection of blood beneath the skin in the form of pinpoint Hemorrhages appearing as red-purple skin discolorations
The word element that means transmission is -phoresis
Kaposi’s Sarcoma a locally destructive neoplasm of the blood vessels associated With AIDs - typically forming lesions on the skin, visceral organs, or mucous membranes.
Any disorder of the lymph nodes or lymph vessels, characterized by localized or generalized enlargement is known as lymphadenopathy
ABO A, B, AB, O blood types
Hbg hemoglobin
Hct hematocrit
PA pernicious anemia
PTT partial thromboplastin time
BMT bone marrow transplantation
EBV Epstein-Barr Virus
Give the 5 types of anemia and define Pernicious anemia-anemia from low mature RBC(B12 inadequate).Iron deficiency anemia-hemoglobin deficient due to low iron in blood.Sickle cell anemia-abnormal red blood cells with a crescent shape in presence of low oxygen concentration.Aplastic anemia–lac
A marked reduction in the number of the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets is pancytopenia
Multiple myeloma is a malignant plasma cell neoplasm that causes and increase in the number of both mature and immature plasma cells – which often entirely replace the bone marrow and destroy the skeletal structure
An abnormal hematologic condition in which the number of platelets is reduced is thrombocytopenia
The abnormal accumulation of fluid in interstitial spaces of tissues is known as edema
This test is used to discover the presence of antierthryocyte antibodies present in the blood of an Rh negative woman direct antiglobulin test (Coomb's test)
The process of a cell engulfing and destroying bacteria is phagocytosis
This is the largest lymphatic organ in the body, located in the LUQ just below the diaphragm and behind the stomach; it filters the blood. Spleen
Immunity that is a result of the body developing the ability to defend itself against a specific agent is an example of natural immunity
A special treatment of allergic responses that administers increasingly large doses of the offending allergens to gradually develop immunity is known as immunotherapy
This test detects the presence of the antibodies to HIV western blot
Arteri/o artery
Coron/o heart
-graphy process of recording
ather/o fatty
echo sound
angi/o vessel
Any deviation from the normal pattern of the heartbeat is known as arrhythmia
Air hunger resulting in labored or difficult breathing, sometimes accompanied by pain is dyspnea
A treatment for varicose veins sclerotherapy
This condition is characterized by weakness, breathlessness, and abdominal discomfort; edema results in the lower portions of the body congestive heart failure
An arterial condition in which there is thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of the walls of arteries is called: arteriosclerosis
A graphic record of the electrical action of the heart is known as an electrocardiogram
Common signs and symptoms of cardiovascular problems include each of the following pallor dyspnea edema
Severe pain and constriction about the heart, usually radiating to the left shoulder and down the left arm angina pectoris
A localized dilatation of an artery formed at a weak point in the vessel wall aneurysm
lntermittent attacks of vasoconstriction of the arterioles, followed by cyanosis and then redness before returning to normal color Raynaud’s Phenomenon
the formation or existence of a blood clot thrombosis
A small, portable monitoring device that makes prolonged electrocardiograph recordings on a portable tape recorder Holter monitor
Analgesic medication to eliminate or reduce pain
Aneurysmectomy surgical removal of an aneurysm
hepatomegaly enlargement of the liver
ischemia decreased supply of oxygenated blood
bradycardia slow heart beat of less than 60 beats per minute
True or False-The visceral pericardium covers the surface of the heart. True
True or False- During the diastolic phase, the ventricles contract and force blood through the aorta. False
True or False-Cardiomyopathy is a disease of the inner lining of the heart. False
True or False-Compression of the heart caused by the accumulation of blood or other fluid within the pericardial sac, thus preventing the ventricles from adequately filling or pumping blood, is known as cardiac tamponade True
Identify the blood flow through the heart. (answer was truncated) De-oxygenated blood enters the right atrium from the superior and inferior vena cava.blood flows into the right ventricle through the tricuspid valve.From the right ventricle the blood passes thru the pulmonary valve into the pulmonary artery, which leads
Label in the diagram of the heart – Aorta,Pulmonary valve,Aortic valve,Left atrium,Tricuspid Valve,Mitral valve,Right ventricle,Left ventricle,Pulmonary artery,Right atrium
CVD Cardio vascular disease
DVT deep vein thrombosis
PET positron emission tomography
ASD atria septum defect
CABG coronary artery bypass graft
PTCA percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
CAD coronary artery disease
CHF congestive heart failure
ICD implantable cardioversion defibrillator
MI myocardial infarction
Which term best describes a superficial skin infection characterized by serous vesicles and pustules impetigo
Select the disease that is characterized by the appearance of 'slapped cheeks." Erythema infectiosum
What is a childhood disease characterized by a barking cough, dyspnea, stridor, and laryngeal spasm called? croup
What is "strawberry tongue" characteristic of? scarlatina
What is an enzyme deficiency that alters lipid metabolism called? Tay-Sachs disease
What is a highly invasive carcinoma associated with sun exposure?
What is cellular maturation and functional definition called? differentiation
Select the term that best describes a lymphoid tissue neoplasm that is typically malignant lymphoma
What does grading describe? Cellular differentiation & growth rate
What does staging refer to? Extent of disease and tumor size
Chickenpox is caused by varicella virus
Colostrum and placental exchange are associated with passive acquired immunity.
Characterized by a blotchy red rash, and is also called the “red measles" and is diagnosed based on the presence of Kopiik's spots in the mouth. rubeola
congenital present at birth
The word element omphal/o means navel
Cancer treatment may include 3 types of treatment chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgery
malignant melanoma originate in preexisting nevi and freckles
The process by which tumor cells spread to distant parts of the body is known as metastasis
carcinogen a cancer causing substance
papill/o means nipple like
eruption of teeth dentition
pertaining to a structure with a stalk pedunculated
disappearance of symptoms of a chronic or malignant disease remission
a written plan of steps to be taken protocol
attached by a base rather than a stalk sessile
lying down recumbent
most common form of breast cancer ductal carcinoma
malignant renal tumor Wilms’ tumor
whooping cough pertussis
fever pyrexia
prevents the proliferation of malignant cells antineoplastic
increased function or complexity development
three-day measles rubella
red measles rubeola
an illness or abnormal condition morbidity
True or False Head circumference is affected by intracranial volume. True
True or False - Failure of the hard palate to fuse results in a congenital defect called cleft palate. True
True or False - Gliomas are classified as primary intracranial tumors. True
True or False - Benign tumors are usually encapsulated. True
True or False - Malignant tumors displace adjacent tissue as they increase in size. False
Ca- cancer
Mets- metastasis
TNM- tumor, node, metastasis
MMR measles, mups, rubella
Td tetanus, dyptheria,toxoid
CAUTION C = change in bowel or bladder habits
A = a sore that does not heal
U = unusual bleeding or discharge
T = thickening or lump in breast
I = indigestion
O = obvious change in mole or warts
N = nagging cough, sore throat
Give one work related pathological condition and its definition. Asbestosis- lung disease resulting from inhalation of asbestos particles
A Pulmonary _______ is the obstruction of a pulmonary artery by a thrombus(clot) that has dislodged from another location. embolism
Define external respiration breathing oxygen into lungs to supply oxygen to the body, exhaling, removing carbon dioxide (waste) from the body.
Pleural _________ is accumulation of fluid in the pleural space, causing compression of the lung and dyspnea. effusion
___________are hair-like projections that sweep dirt and foreign materials toward the throat for elimination. cilia
The following diagram depicts the chronic pulmonary disease that is characterized by an increase beyond the normal size of air spaces distal to the terminal bronchiole, either from dilation of the alveoli or from destruction of their walls. emphysema
The Respiratory System is responsible for three major functions. The main function (1) is respiration (breathing), which is accomplished through internal and external respiration. Name the two other functions protection, and sound
Name the three parts of the pharynx nasopharnyx,oropharynx,laryngopharynx
Expectoration spitting out saliva or coughing up materials from the throat or lungs
orthopnea discomfort in breathing in any but erect, sitting, or standing positions
bradypnea abnormally slow breathing
dysphonia difficulty in speaking; hoarseness
tachypnea abnormal rapidity of breathing
apnea temporary cessation of breathing
epistaxis nosebleed
rhinorrhea thin, watery discharge from the nose
URI upper respiratory infection
CXR chest x-ray
COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
SOB shortness of breath
ABG(s) arterial blood gases
Identify the pathway of air as it travels from the nose to the capillaries of the lungs Nose, nasal cavity,paranasal sinuses , pharynx, larynx, trachea,bronchi,Bronchioles,alveoli
The following terms are techniques used in the physical examination of the respiratory system percussion, palpation, auscultation
What is the medical term for "sore throat"? pharyngitis
Which term best describes spitting up blood? hemoptysis
Which structure is also known as the "voice box"? larynx
Which structure is also known as the "windpipe"? trachea
A productive cough is one that is effective in bringing up sputum
The use of a needle to collect pleural fluid for laboratory analysis, or to remove excess pleural fluid or air from the pleural space is known as a(n) thoracentesis
The term for a collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity is pneumothorax
The external nostrils are called the nares
The paranasal sinuses are hollow, are located in the skull, communicate with the nasal cavity
The thin, leaf-shaped structure that covers the entrance to the larynx when swallowing is the epiglottis
Chronic dilatation of a bronchus or bronchi, with secondary infection that usually involves the lower portion of the lung is known as bronchiectasis
Pus in a body cavity, especially in the pleural cavity, that is usually the result of a primary infection in the lungs is known as Empyema
Orth/o straight
Pne/o breath
Pulmon/o lung
Rhin/o nose
Phren/o efers to the diaphragm
Pneum/o lung
Label in respiratory diagram larynx,trachea,bronchi
True or False - A condyle is a knuckle-like projection at the end of a bone. True
True or False - Cardiac musde is classified as voluntary muscle. False
True or False - The buccinator is located in the fleshy part of the cheek. True
True or False - Adhesive capsulitis is also known as a frozen shoulder. True
Carp/o wrist
Cost/o rib
Oste/o bone
Lord/o swayback
-desis surgical repair
ankyl/o stiff
troph/o develop
my/o muscle
Label - diagram of bone diaphysis,epiphysis,periasteum,spongy bone, articular cartilage
A condition in which bones that were once strong become fragile due to loss of bone density is known as osteoporosis
A condition in which the bones become abnormally soft due to a deficiency of calcium and phosphorus in the blood is known as osteomalacia
An abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe is called a bunion
A form of acute arthritis that is characterized by inflammation of the first metatarsal joint of the great toe is known as gout
The most common form of arthritis, due to wear and tear on the joints, especially the weight-bearing joints of the hips and knees, is known as osteoarthritis
The bones of the hand are known as metacarpals
The medical term for the knee bone or kneecap is patella
The muscle that covers the shoulder joint is called the deltoid
The point of attachment of the muscle to the bone that is less moveable is called the origin
The point of attachment of the muscle to the bone it moves is called the insertion
break in the bone but no open wound closed fracture/simple
break through the entire thickness of the bone caused by the bone surfaces being forced against each other compression fracture
break in the bone, and an open wound in the skin compount fracture/open
minor fracture; bone remains in perfect alignment hairline fracture/stress
break due to bone being weakened by a preexisting disease pathological fracture
one side of bone is broken, the other side is bent greenstick fracture
occurs at the lower end of the radius, within 1 inch of the wrist bones Colles’ fracture
circumduction complete circular movement
atrophy wasting away of tissue
kyphosis curvature of spine resulting in humpback
lordosis curvature of spine resulting in swayback
fossa indentation in bone
redmarrow of the bones is responsible for hematopoiesis, which is defined as red blood cell creation
this bone is the only moveable bone of the skull mandible
the first seven pairs of ribs, that articulate with the sternum, are known as the true ribs
A genetically transmitted disorder that is characterized by progressive weakness and muscle fiber degeneration without evidence of nerve involvement or degeneration of nerve tissue is known as pseudotrophic muscular dystrophy
Label the bone process in the diagram spine
Label the muscle in the diagram gluteus medius
Label the bone in the diagram tibia
IM intramuscular
OA osteoarthritis
RA rheumatoid arthritis
Fx fracture
DEXA dual energy x-ray absorptiometry
THR total hip replacement
Created by: kcannon