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Geography #2

Grades 4 to 8

Gorges Valleys with steep cliff walls
Wetlands Natural lowlands where the water level stays at or above the land's surface for most of a year
Bogs, Marshes, and Swamps Natural wetlands
Erosion Gradual wearing away of land by the action of wind, water, or glaciers
Weathering Gradual breakdown of rocks by weather, including wind, rain, snow, and changes in temperature
Glaciers Slow-moving sheets of ice found in high mountain valleys and polar regions
What percent of Earth's surface is covered by glaciers? 3% (about six million square miles)
Icebergs Remnants of glaciers floating in the open water
Moraines Rocks and dirt left behind a glacier
Oceans Cover 3/4 or 75% of Earth's surface
Which ocean is the largest? Pacific Ocean
Where is the deepest part of the largest ocean? Mariana Trench (35,800 feet deep) in the Pacific Ocean
Ocean Currents Predictable wind patterns on the surface of the oceans
Tsunamis Surges of water caused by underwater volcanoes and earthquakes
Tides Daily changes in levels of water in oceans and seas
What causes the high and low tides on the coasts? Gravitational attraction of the moon
High tide occurs every ___ hours. 12
Which river is the longest in North America? MacKenzie (2,640 miles)
Which river is the longest in the United States? Mississippi (2,340 miles)
Which river is the longest in South America? Amazon (4,000 miles)
Which river is the longest in Africa? Nile (4,160 miles)
Which river is the longest in Eurasia? Chiang Jiang [Yangtze] (3,960 miles)
Source Beginning of a river
Mouth End of a river where it empties into a larger body of water
Seas Large bodies of salt or fresh water partly or completely enclosed by land
Gulf Large bodies of ocean or sea water that are partly surrounded by land; bigger than a bay
Bay Large bodies of ocean or sea water that are partly surrounded by land; smaller than a gulf
Crater Lake Water collects in craters left by volcanoes
Glacial Lake Ice from glaciers carves depressions in the landscape; ice melts to form lake
Rift Valley Lake Shifts in plates on Earth's surface form depressions that fill with water
Artificial Lake Lakes created by building dams on rivers or by digging dpressions and filling them with water
Atmosphere Air that surrounds the Earth
Exosphere Border between earth and space (310 miles)
Which layer of Earth's atmosphere do satellites revolve? Exosphere
Ionsphere Part of the thermosphere where electrically charged particles bounce back radio waves beamed up from Earth
Thermosphere Ranges up to 400 miles above the Earth's surface
Stratosphere Contains a layer of icy winds found in a layer of clouds; above the clouds, the air is dry and clear
Ozone layer Found in the stratosphere; this layer absorbs harmful ultraviolet rays from the sun
In which layer of Earth's atmosphere do sonic jets like the Concorde fly? Stratosphere
Troposphere Layer of Earth's atmosphere about 12 miles thick at the Equator and 5 miles thick at the Poles
In which layer of Earth's atmosphere are more than 50% of the atmosphere's gases, water vapor, and dust particles? Troposphere (closest to Earth)
Weather Day-to-day changes in the atmosphere
What are the three most important components of weather? 1. Temperature, 2. Precipitation, and 3. Wind (in that order)
Climate Usual weather in an area over a long period of time
Photosynthesis Process where plants convert sunlight into sugar and starch to sustain the plant
Air Pressure Weight of the atmosphere pressing down on the Earth
High Atmospheric Pressure Usually clear skies and sunny weather
Low Atmospheric Pressure Usually cloudy, rainy (or snowy) weather
Ethiopia Highest annual average temperature on Earth
Antarctica Lowest annual average temperature on Earth
Why do cold fronts slide under warm air? Cold fronts are denser and heavier than warm air.
Why do warm fronts go above cold air? Warm fronts are less dense and lighter than cold air.
Stationary Front Warm and cold fronts meet, but neither front rises or sinks; they just hang together
Occluded Front A warm front gets trapped between cold and cool air.
Tropics Area surrounding the Equator where the sun's rays hit most directly
Temperate Zones above and below the Tropics that receive less direct sun's rays than the Tropics
Polar Zones above and below the Temperate Zones and receive lthe least direct sun's rays
Which heats up faster--land or water? Land
Which cools down more slowly--land or water? Water
Wind Air movement between high and low pressure
Why don't winds blow directly north and south? Rotation of the Earth skews them
Hurricanes, Typhoons, and Cyclones Spiraling storms that form over water
Occur in the North Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, or in the eastern North Pacific near Mexico and Central America Hurricane
Occur in the North Pacific west of the International Date Line near China, Japan, and Southeast Asia Typhoon
Occur in the South Pacific or the Indian Ocean Cyclone
Evaporate Change from a liquid to a gas
What are the 3 states of matter using water? Solid - ice; Liquid - water; Gas - water vapor
Humidity Amount of moisture in the air
What acts as insulation keeping much of the sun from reaching the Earth? Clouds
How does wind affect the ocean and other bodies of water? Wind creates waves.
Earth is divided into ten ___________. Biomes
Topmost layer of leaves and branches in a tropical rain forest biome is called the _________ _________. Forest Canopy
Layer of shrubs and small trees that rise 10 to 50 feet above the floor are called the ___________. Understory
Tree-dwelling Arboreal
What is another name for a tropical grassland biome? Savanna
What are the seasons in a tropical grassland biome? Dry Season and Wet Season
What is another name for a Mediterranean biome? Chaparral
What types of climate are found in a Mediterranean biome? Because chaparrals are located on the coasts, the winters are cool and moist, but the summers are hot and dry.
What types of trees dominate the temperate forest biome? Deciduous trees that lose their leaves in the fall
What is another name for a cool forest biome? Boreal forests
What types of trees dominate the cool forest biome? Conifers (pine, spruce, hemlock)
What is another name for a cool grassland biome? Prairie
Can deserts be cold? Yes!
What qualifies a region as a "desert?" The region has less than 10 inches of precipitation each year.
What type of plants thrive in a desert biome? Succulents (cacti)
Nocturnal Active only at night
Where are cold deserts located on Earth? Siberia in Russia and much of Antarctica
Which biome is too cold for trees to grow? Tundra
During warmer months in the tundra, the ground thaws down to the ______________, Permafrost (frozen ground that never melts)
Which is colder--Antarctica or the Arctic? Antarctica
Areas surrounding the north and south poles Polar Ice Caps
What do dolphins, porpoises, whales and seals all have in common? Blubber
Which side of a mountain biome gets more rainfall? Windward
Which side of a mountain biome gets less rainfall? Leeward
Time needed for a population to increase 100%, or to double Doubling Time
Average number of years people live Life Expectancy
How quickly a population grows each year measured in percent Population Growth Rate
The makeup of a population by age and gender (male or female) Population Structure
The world's population increases by about ____ people every second. 3
Bar graph that shows the different age groups of a population that shares something in common, such as language, dog ownership, or a school Population Profile
Bar graph that depicts a total population by breaking it down into age groupings and gender Population Pyramid
Created by: marybahner
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