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Orthopedics

Orthopedic rehabilitation and thysical therapy

QuestionAnswer
Orthopedics Branch of medicine that deals with injuries and disorders of the musculoskeletal system and includes the following structures Bone / muscles/ joints/tendons/ligament
Orthopedist Medical doctor who treats disease / disorders of the bones and muscles
Neurologists Specialist in brand and nerves
Nerosurgeon Surgeon for brain and nerves
Physiatrist Diagnoses and treats
Neuromuscular Bone disease and injuries
Physical therapist Restores function and mobility and flexibility
Occupational therapist Helps with ADL. Activities of daily living
CT - scan X-rays / cross-sectional views primarily bone and muscle ( +radiation)
MRI Magnetic. Waves produce the images bone joints muscles (O) radiation
Bone scan Visualizes the distribution of (radioactive isotopes) that collect in the bones and joints (iV injectected) evaluates for arthritis or bone cancer (+ radiation)
X-rays Recording a record of body parts / fx's dislocation evaluates bone and joints (+ radiation)
Blood or urine tests Uric acid (gout) calcium phosphorus ( breakdown of the bone or muscle)
Bone / muscle biopsy Used to ( r/o) rule out bone cancer and bone infection
Arthrograraphy X-Ray / dye injected into joints Views ligaments and joint cartilage / joint capsule
Discography CT scan dye injectected. Into intervertebral dices to evaluate discs (+ radiation)
EMG Electromyoography Assesses health of muscles and nerves cells that control them
Arthroscopy Visual examination of a joint
ROM Range of motion
PT Physical therapist
OT Occupational therapist
ACL Anterior crucial ligament
ADLs Activities of daily living
SERMs Selective estrogen receptor modutators
PTH Parathyroid hormone
CPK Creatine phosphokinase
Strain Injury to a muscle or tendon caused by excessive use or overexertion Not as serious as a sprain
Sprain Involves trauma to the ligament May involve muscles and tendons Worse then a sprain
RICE Rest Ice Compression Elevation
Ligament Flexible strong fiberous tissue that CONNECTS TO BONE
Tendon Flexible but inelastic cord of strong. Fibouse tissue that CONNECTS MUSCLE TO BONE
Dislocation Temporary displacement of the bone from its usual position in he joint
Subluxation Partial dislocation
Fracture Break in bone Simple or closed Doesn't penetrate skin Or compound or open protrudes through skin
Reduction Realign the bones to original position Closed: set without incision Open: incision needed to realign bones
Ambulation Ability to walk or move about freely Fascinating = muscle to muscle
Rehabilition PT/ OT /
Physical therapy AIDS in restoring, function ,mobility, strength,,flexibility , gross movements
Occupational therapy Aid s in ADL's Activities of daily living
Cryotherapy Cold therapy ( vasoconstriction) Decreased blood vessels Decreases inflammation stops bleeding
Thermotherapy Heat therapy / vasodilation Improves circulation
Hydro therapy Water therapy Ex; whirlpool
Ultrasound Deep tissue stimulation
Exercise (ROM) range of motion) Active / passive/ assisted
Canes Are prescribed for patients who need support on one side
Types of canes Standard - light support Tripod - greater stability Quad - rests on four feet
Walkers Provide the most support and stability
Crutches Used when weight bearing is prohibited Adjust axillary crutches (2- 3 finger widths below axilla
Gaits 2-pt 3- pt ( swing to swing through) 4-pt
Ambulation Ability to walk or move about freely
Cartilage Connective tissue located between the articular surfaces of bones / joints /and vertebrae that acts as a shock absorber
Cryotherapy The application of dry or moist cold to the affected area of the body
Arthroscopy Visualization of a joint and joint capsule through a lighted instrument For treatment
Modalities Physical agents such as heat cold and exercise to improve or restore Lost function
Orthopedist Specializes in the treatment of disease and disorders of the bone and muscle Can perform surgery
Prosthesis An artificial joint
Rehabilitation ( OP) Process of treatment designed to return a body part to its full function,following an illness or injury, helps patients find a workable solution to assist them with the activities of daily living
Sprain Trauma to ligaments, may also involve injury to the tendons n muscles
Strain Injury to a muscle or tendon caused by excessive use or overexertion
Thermotherapy Use of dry or moist heat to promote healing and restore function
Massage Use of pressure,friction n kneading to promote muscle relaxation
Dislocation Temporary displacement of a bone from its usual position within a joint
Physical therapist Specialist who helps to restore function improve mobility and decrease pain to an area that has been damaged by injury or disease
Ultrasound Use of high - frequency sound waves used to create heat deep in soft tissues such as muscles and tendons
TENS Transitaious elcrtrical nerve stimulation
DEXA Duel energy x-Ray obsoptromy
Complete fracture Completely broken threw
Incomplete fracture Green stick bone broken but not threw skin Partially bent / partially broken
Complicated fracture Bone is broken and surrounding tissue is damaged
Compression fracture A piece of the bone is driven inwards
Hairline fracture A crack in the bone
Impacted fracture A break in which one bone fragment is wedged into the other
Pathological fracture A fracture due to disease condition such as osteoporosis
Pott's A fracture that occurs at the distal end of the tibia or fibula just above the ankle
Spiral fracture A fracture that occurs as a result of twisting the bone The fracture spirals around the long bone
Stress fracture A fine hairlike fracture that occurs as a result of repetitive trauma due to running and such Difficult to diagnose by x-Ray
Colles A fracture of the distal end of the radius bone in the wrist
Comminuted The bone is broken or splintered into fragments
Transverse The bone is fractured at a right angle to the axis of its bone
Oblique A diagonal fracture of the bone
Vicosupplemention Injecting preparation directly into a joint
Thermotherapy Applying dry or moist heat to a body part
Dry heat modalities Heating pads/ hot packs /hot water.bottle( temperature not exceed 110F or (43c)
Moist heat modalities Hot compresses (no more then 110 f)
Moist heat modalities are Hot packs / hot soak (body submerged in h2o for15 mins) Paraffin baths ( body part is dipped into paraffin and water coating it with wax Peel in 30 mins
Cryotherapy Apply dry or moist cold to affected areas Constricts blood vessels and induces contraction of involuntary muscles
Dry cold modalities Chemical ice pack
Moist cold modalities Cold compresses / ice massages
Ultrasound Promotes healing of deeper tissues Uses high frequency sound waves to. Create heat deep with in soft tissue
Hydrotherapy Whirlpools / contrast baths( to treat hands and feet) Treats burns/ injuries and other physical problems Done in hospital or large clinic
Hydrotherapy medicated bath Bath that has oatmeal or Epsom salts
Electrical stimulation Low voltage current Prevents atrophy
Created by: Tbella