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Endocrine system

Male reproductive system

Pituitary gland MASTER. G LAND Secretes hormones that control the functions of other glands Known as hypophysis
Secretes Adrenocorticotropic. = hormone (ACTH) Stimulates normal growth and development of adrenal cortex and secretions of corticosteroids
Secretes thyroid = stimulating hormone ( TSH) Promotes and maintain normal growth and development of the thyroid gland Stimulates Secretions of the thyroid hormones
Anterior pituitary gland = Also called prolactin Secretes lactogenic hormone Promotes development of breast milk during pregnancy Stimulates secretion of milk from breast after delivery of baby
Secretes follicle = stimulating hormones (FSH) Stimulates secretions of estrogen and production of eggs on female ovaries Stimulates production of sperm in the male testes
Secretes luteinizing hormone ( LH) Stimulates female ovulation and secretions of testosterone in the male
Melanocytes = stimulating hormone (MSH) Controls intensity of pigmentation (COLOR) in pigmented cells of the skin
POSTERIOR Pituitary gland =. Neurohypophysis Secretes anitidiuretic hormone (ADH) Also known as vasopressin/ decreases excretion of large amounts of urine Increases Reabsorbtion of water to renal tubules consentrates urine / increases Reabsorbtion of water by renal tubules maintaining body's water balance
Posterior = Secretes oxytocin (OT) Stimulates contraction of uterus during childbirth Stimulates release of milk from breasts of lactating woman In response to sucking reflex of infant To induce labor in child birth
Pineal gland = secretes melatonin Tiny pine cone shaped gland Regulates patterns of sleep eating and reproduction Located on dorsal aspect of midbrain region Plays a part in supporting the body's biological clock
Thyroid gland Located in the front of the neck just below the larynx on either side of the trachea Consists of right and left lobes
Thyroid gland = Secretes triiodothyronine ( T3) 3 iodine hormones Helps regulate growth and development of body Helps control metabolism and body temperature
Thyroid gland = Secretes thyroxine (T4) Helps maintain normal body metabolism (T3) helps (T4)
Thyroid gland = Secretes calcitonin Calcitonin comes from the thyroid gland Helps regulate the level of calcium in the blood
Parathyroid glands = Secretes parathyroid hormone (PTH) Also known as parathormone Also regulates calcium in blood
Thymus Secretes = thymidine and thymopoietin Stimulates (T- cells) that are involved in the immune response Large in fetus and infants Shrinks with age
Thymus gland Located in the mediastinum (space between the lungs) Near middle of chest / beneath the sternum
Adrenal gland Supra renal glands Two small glands one atop each kidney Consists of an adrenal cortex ( outer portion) and an Adrenal medulla ( inner portion) Each has independent functions / secreting different hormones
Adrenal cortex = secretes mineralocorticoids Regulates how minerals salts (electrolytes) are processed in the body (Aldosterone) Regulates electrolytes
Adrenal cortex. = Secretes glucocorticoids Sex hormones in small amounts Contribute to secondary sex characteristics in males and females Cortisone/ hydrocortisone Influences metabolism of carbohydrates/ fats/ protein in the body Necessary for maintaining normal blood pressure
Adrenal medulla = secretes Catecholamines / epinphRine=adrenaline Increased heart rate and force of heart muscle Dialiates bronchioles in lungs/ decreases peristalsis in intestines Raises blood pressure by causing liver to convert glycogen into glulcose
Adrenal medulla secretes/ carecholamines Norepinephrine = noradrenaline Also known as sympathomimetic Produces vasoconstrictor effect on the blood vessels there by raises blood pressure
Pancreas Elongated gland located in the upper guarantee of the abdomen Behind the stomach extends horizontally across the body
Pancreas= islets of langerhans secretes = glucagon Increases blood glucose levels by stimulating liver to convert glycogen into glulcose when blood sugar is extremely low
Pancreas = islets of langerhans secretes =insulin Allows glulcose to pass from blood through cell mambranes to be used for energy Promotes conversion of excess Gloucose into glycogen for storage in the liver for later use Lowers blood glucose levels
Ovaries Female sex gland= female gonads Pair of almond shaped glands Responsible for producing mature ova and releasing them at intervals during ovulation
Ovaries = secretes Estrogen = promotes maturation of ovum in the ovary Contributes to secondary sex characteristics changes in female with onset of puberty
Ovaries = secretes Progesterone = primarily responsible for changes within the uterus in anticipation of a fertilized ovum Responsible for development of maternal placenta after implantation of a fertilized ovum
Testes= male gonads Two small ovoid glands located in scrotum other then sperm responsible for secretions of ( androgens= male steroid hormones ) Also responsible for secondary sex characteristic that occur I male with onset Of puberty
Acromegaly / pituitary conditions gland AFTER PUBERTY Chronic metabolic condition characterized by the gradual Noticeable enlargement and elongation of Bones of the face Jaw and extremities Due to hypersecretion of the growth hormone
Gigantism BEFORE PUBERTY Accelerated abnormal growth mainly in long bones Proportional overgrowth of body's tissue DUE TO hypersecretion of humans hormone
Diabetes insipidus Inbalance between salt and water Deficiency in secretion of anitidiuretic hormone (ADH) by posterior pituitary Gland Characterized by large amounts of urine /sodium being secreted from the body
Dwarfism Congenital hypopituitarism /growth retardation of body due to deficiency Of human growth hormone
Hypopituitarism Complex syndrome resulting from absence or deficiency of pituitary hormones
Cancer thyroid gland Malignant tumor of thyroid gland Leads to dysfuction of the gland Inadequate or excessive secretion of the thyroid hormone Damaged gland
Goiter/ simple; nontoxic Hyperplasia excessive growth of the thyroid gland Result from deficient amount of iodine in diet Which is required for synthesis of T 3 and T 4 thyroid hormones produced By thyroid gland Increased number of cells / non cancerous It looks like a
Graves' disease (Hyperthyroidism ) Hypertropy of thyroid gland resulting in excessive secretion of thyroid hormone /causes extremely HIGH metabolism 1 =hyperthyroidism T3 T4 are high 2=goiter =increase in number of cells ( big thyroid ) 3=exophthalmia =unnatural protruding of the eye
Hypothyroidism Servere form (myxedema ) water retention in connective tissue/ puffy appearance thick tongue reduced metabolic rate Condition in which there is a SHORTAGE of thyroid hormone Cause extremely low body metabolism due to reduced usage of OXYGEN
Thyroiditis / hashimoto's Auto immune disease Chronic inflammation of the thyroid gland/ leading to enlargement of the thyroid gland
Thyrotoxicosis ( thyroid storm ) Acute sometimes fatal incident of OVERACTIVITY of the thyroid gland resulting in EXCESSIVE secretion of thyroid hormone May be complication of GRAVES DISEASE Effects your heart = go into shock
hyperparathyroidism ( hyercalcemia) OVERACTIVITY of any one of the parathyroid glands High levels of calcium in bones
Hypoparathyroidism ( hypocalcemia) DECREASED production of parathyroid hormone Nerve and muscle weakness with muscle spasms or tetany
Addison's disease Resulting from an autoimmune process a neoplasm infection or hemorrhage in the gland Life threatening disease due to failure of the adrenal cortex to secrete adequate mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoid
Conn's disease ( primary MAIN aldosteronism) 1 = condition characterized by excretion of excess amounts of aldosterone 2 =leads to increased volume of blood and hypertension 3=causes body to swell up due to the retention of extra sodium excrete extra potassium
Cushing's syndrome Condition of adrenal gland Cluster of symptoms occur as a result of excessive amounts of cortisol or ATCH circulating in the blood Symptoms Central obesity Round moon face Edema. hypertensions Supraclavicular fat pads ( buffalo hump)
Pheochromocytoma Vascular tumor of adrenal medulla causing extra production of epinephrine and norepinephrine Leads to hypertension and heart palpitations
Virilism Development of male SECONDARY sex characteristics in the female due to excessive secretion of adrenalocortical androgens from the adrenal cortex
Virilism symptoms Hirsutism Absence of menstrution Deepening of the voice Acne / oily skin Atrophy of breast and uterus Ovarian changes
Diabetes medullitus Disorder in pancreas in which beta cells of the ISLETS of LANGERHANS Of the Pancreas fail to produce an adequate amount of insulin or to use the insulin appropriately Results in body's ability to metabolize carbs fats and protein
Diabetes medullitus type 1 Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (LDDM) Occurs before 30 teenagers Sudden onset Controlled with insulin Must treat with injection
Diabetes medullitus type 2 Non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus ( NIDDM) Appears in adults Obesity can be controlled with diet and exercise
Diabetic retinopathy Disorder of blood vessels of retina bulging eyes Leading cause of blindness in the United States
Gestational diabetes Disorder in which women who do not have diabetes before pregnancy develop diabetes during pregnancy Inability to digest carbohydrates
Pancreatitis Inflammation of the pancreas
Pancreatic cancer Life threatening primary malignant neoplasm typically found in the head of the pancreas
Fasting blood sugar FBS
Glucose tolerance test GTT drink concentrated drink 3 hrs long 1 2 3 hours blood is taken
hemoglobin A1c test Blood that shows average level of glucose in the blood durning last three months Glucose binds chemically to hemoglobin molecules in red blood cells
Radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) test Thyroid function test Administers radioactive iodine Places gamma ray detector over thyroid gland Determines percentage of radioactive iodine absorbed by gland over specific time periods
Thyroid echogram ( ultrasound) Examination to distinguish solid thyroid nodules from cystic nodules
Thyroid function test Measures blood levels of hormones T3, T4 and TSH ( thyroid stimulating hormone )
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) Measures concentration of TSH in the blood Used it differentiate primary hypothyroidism from secondary hypothyroidism
Created by: Tbella



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