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A&P2 Exam 2

Chapter 19

plasma 55% of blood; liquid extracellular matrix of blood
formed elements cells and cell fragments found suspended in plasma
3 components of formed elements and their % hematocrit-44% (RBCs); buffy coat-1% (WBCs and platelets-small cellular fragments)
7 functions performed by blood exchanging gas, distributing solutes, performing immune functions, maintaining body temp, blood clotting, acid-base homeostasis, blood pressure
3 components of plasma and their % water-90%, less water=greater viscosity; plasma proteins form a colloid-9%, albumin, immune proteins, transport proteins, clotting proteins; other solutes-1%
albumin protein synthesized in liver; responsible for blood’s colloid osmotic pressure; draws water into blood by osmosis
immune proteins (y-globulins) also known as antibodies; made by leukocytes, components of immune system
transport proteins bind to lipid-based molecules to transport them in hydrophilic blood; α- and β-globulins and lipoproteins
clotting proteins stop bleeding from injured blood vessels by forming a blood clot with assistance from platelets; fibrinogen and clotting factors
red blood cell biconcave disc; increases surface area of cell; increases gas exchange; example of Structure-Function Core Principle Anucleate: lacks other cellular organelles -Cytosol has enzymes and 1 billion oxygen-binding hemoglobin (Hb) proteins
5 Leukocytes (WBCs) most to least numerous neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils
neutrophils (granulocyte) cytoplasmic granules stains light lilac color; Active phagocytes that ingest and destroy bacterial cells by releasing granules; three to five lobes to nucleus
chemotaxis Injured cells release chemicals that attract Neutrophils from bloods
eosinophils (granulocyte) bilobed nucleus and cytoplasm appears red; Phagocytes that ingest foreign antigens; Granules contain enzymes and toxins that attack parasitic worms and release inflammatory chemicals in allergic reactions
basophils (granulocyte) S-shaped nucleus and appear dark purple (blue); Chemicals in granules mediate inflammation
lymphocytes (agranulocyte) contain large, spherical nuclei and a light blue rim of cytoplasm Activated by cellular markers found on all cells called antigens
B lymphocytes (B cells) produce specific antibodies which bind to and remove specific antigens from tissue
T lymphocytes (T cells) activate other immune system components and directly destroy abnormal body cells, such as cancer cells or virally infected cells
monocytes largest leukocyte; large U-shaped or (kidney-shaped) nucleus surrounded by light blue rim of cytoplasm
macrophages phagocytic cells in tissues that ingest dead and dying cells, bacteria, antigens, and other cellular debris
platelet characteristics cell fragments surrounded by a plasma membrane, no nucleus, few organelles
platelet components several types of granules that contain clotting factors, enzymes, some mitochondria, and glycogen deposits that enable them to carry out oxidative catabolism, cytoskeletal elements, which include microtubules associated with actin and myosin filaments
platelet functions a process that stops blood loss from an injured blood vessel; blood clotting
Cirrhosis liver disease that is caused by alcoholism, viral hepatitis, and cancer; 10th leading cause of death men, 12th women; results in progressive dec. in prod. of plasma proteins; leads to dec. colloidal osmotic pres; results in fluid loss to extracellular sp
globin large protein of four polypeptide subunits: two alpha chains and two beta chains; binds CO2
heme each polypeptide bound to iron containing compound; binds O2
oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) iron oxidized when it binds to oxygen in regions of high oxygen concentration (such as lungs)
deoxyemoglobin (HHb) iron is reduced when releases oxygen into tissues where oxygen concentration is low
carbaminohemoglobin (CO2) carbon dioxide binds to amino acids of globin where oxygen levels are low; accounts for 23% of CO2 transported in blood
carboxyhemoglobin (CO) carbon monoxide binds more strongly to iron of heme than oxygen; changes Hb shape
life span of erythrocyte 120 days (4-6 million/mm^3)
Erythropoiesis-hematopoietic stem cell differentiates into progenitor cells called Erythrocyte colony- forming units (CFUs)
Erythropoiesis- erythrocyte CFU differentiates into proerythroblasts stimulated by hormone erythropoietin (secreted by kidneys)
Erythropoiesis- proerythroblast develop into Erythroblasts; from rough ER and ribosomes; synthesize Hb; nucleus shrinks as it matures and ejected
Erythropoiesis- erythroblast eject remaining organelles, enter bloodstream through sinusoidal capillaries of bone marrow
Erythropoiesis- reticulocyte remaining organelles are ejected; cell enters bloodstream
Erythropoiesis-erythrocyte cell is now mature
universal donor O-
universal recipient AB+
erythropoiesis regulation feedback loop: stimulus blood levels of oxygen fall below normal
erythropoiesis regulation feedback loop: receptor kidney cells detect falling oxyen levels
erythropoiesis regulation feedback loop: control center kidneys produce more erythropoietin and release hormone into bloodstream
erythropoiesis regulation feedback loop: effector/response production of erythrocytes increases by stimulation
erythropoiesis regulation feedback loop: homeostasis blood levels of oxygen rise to normal
anemia decreased oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood, symptoms: pallor (pale skin), fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, tachycardia, increased reticulocyte count
iron-deficiency anemia decreased hemoglobin; (most common),caused by inadequate dietary iron intake, reduced intestinal absorption of iron, or slow blood loss
anemia of chronic disease decreased hemoglobin; interferes with iron transportation from liver to red bone marrow; Vitamin B6 deficiency, malnutrition, poisoning with certain drugs or heavy metals, like lead, and pregnancy can all decrease hemoglobin levels
pernicious anemia decreased hematocrit; results from vitamin B12 deficiency, interferes with DNA synthesis of rapidly dividing cells, including hematopoietic cells in bone marrow
hemolytic anemia decreased hematocrit; erythrocyte destruction caused by bacterial infections, diseases of immune system or liver
aplastic anemia decreased hematocrit; stop production of erythrocytes in red bone marrow
abnormal hemoglobin causes most common=sickle-cell disease sickle-cell trait: single copy of defective gene Sickle-cell disease: two defective copies of gene produce abnormal hemoglobin called hemoglobin S (HbS)
leukocyte formation: luekopoiesis the process in the red bone marrow that begin with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) for all 5 kinds
myeloid cell line produces most formed elements, including erythrocytes and platelets
lymphoid cell line produces lymphoblast, committed to becoming B and T lymphocytes, which then develop into prolymphocyte precursor cells
leukemia cancers of blood cells or bone marrow; classified based of speed of disease progression and from cell line
acute luekemia rapid increase in immature, nonfunctional, or poorly functional blood cells; children
chronic leukemia slow accumulation of abnormal mature leukocytes; adults
lymphocytic luekemia from lymphoid cell line; generally abnormal B lyphocytes
myelogenous luekemia from myeloid cell line; can involve any of myeloid cells
platelet formation thrombopoiesis
explain how platelets are formed from mature megakaryocytes Stimulated by hormone thrombopoietin produced in liver; send cytoplasmic extensions through clefts in bone marrow sinusoids into bloodstream; break off into thousands of platelets
life span of platelets about 9 years before they are removed from circulation by liver and spleen
homeostasis of blood clot: part 1- vascular spasm 1. Blood vessel is injured 2. blood leaks into extracellular fluid with following two responses 3. vasoconstriction and increased tissue pressure both act to decrease blood vessel diameter
homeostasis of blood clot: part 2- platelet plug formation forms patch, consisting mostly platelets, that adheres only to the injury site, further reducing blood loss: 1.Injured endothelial cells release von Willebrand factor (vWF) 2.Exposed collagen + vWF triggers platelet activation 3.Platelet aggregation
homeostasis of blood clot: part 3-coagulation is the process that forms the molecular glue that binds platelets, endothelial cells, and other formed elements together: 1. Fibrin is the threadlike protein that converts a soft, liquid platelet plug into a more substantial solid mass.
homeostasis of blood clot: part 4-clot retraction Actin and myosin fibers in platelets contract; brings edges of wounded vessel closer together
homeostasis of blood clot: part 5-thrombolysis a. endothelial cells release tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) b. tPA activates plasminogen c. plasmin degrades fibrin, and the clot dissolves
coagulation cascade Fibrin is found circulating in plasma and in platelets in an inactive form called fibrinogen which is converted into fibrin by a series of reactions that occur at the surface of platelets and/or damaged endothelial cells
intrinsic pathway involves exposed collagen fibers and clotting factors found in the blood: a. exposed collagen fibers activate factor XII b. Factors XI and IX become activated c. Factors IXa and VIIIa and Ca2+ form an enzyme complex that activates factor X
extrinsic pathway is initiated by a factor outside the blood called tissue factor: a. Subendothelial cells display tissue factor b. tissue factor activates VII c. factor VIIa, tissue factor, and Ca2+ form an enzyme complex
common pathway both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways lead to formation of activated factor X: a. Factor Xa and Va and Ca2+ form prothrombin activator, converting prothrombin into thrombin b. Thrombin turns fibrinogen into fibrin, which glues plug together
serum fluid consisting of plasma without clotting proteins; forced out of clot during clot retraction
regulation of clotting positive feedback mechanism. Produce anticoagulants that inhibit coagulation
antithrombin III (AT-III) plasma protein made by the liver; binds and inhibits thrombin and factor Xa, activity enhanced by heparin and heparin sulfate
heparin sulfate polysaccharide in the extracellular fluid produced by many different cell types; enhances activity of antithrombin-III
protein C plasma protein produced by the liver, synthesis requires vitamin K; degrades factors Va and VIIIa
disorders of clotting-bleeding disorders hemophilia A- factor VIII deficiency hemophilia B- factor IX deficiency
thrombosis formation of an inappropriate clot
thrombus clot; obstruct blood flow through blood
thromboembolism break off of a thrombus and travel to distinct site
deep vein thrombosis form in deep veins of legs
pulmonary embolism a dangerous complication of DVTs; emboli break off thrombi in legs and lodge in small blood vessles in lungs
anticoagulants; heparin; warfarin widely used group of medications; manage and prevent emboli; include: a. action is nearly immediate but must be injected b. given by mouth; inhibits production of Vit. K- dependent clotting factors by liver
antiplatelet drugs; aspirin; clopidogrel a. inhibits platelet aggregation b. blocks platelet receptors and inhibits platelet activation
thrombolytic agents (tPA) used when thrombi or emboli have caused stroke or heart attack to restore blood flow
blood transfusions antigens on erythrocytes of blood groups determined by carbohydrate chains. Two groups are useful for clinical use: (1) the ABO blood group, and (2) the Rh blood group
tranfusion reaction recipient antibodies bind to donor antigens; causes agglutination that destroys donor erythrocytes, possibly leading to kidney failure and death
blood typing ABO blood group features two antigens, the A and B antigens, gives rise to four ABO types
4 blood types Type A, A antigen is present on erythrocytes. Type B, B antigen is on erythrocytes. Type AB, A and B antigens are on erythrocytes. Type O, neither A or B antigens are on erythrocytes. No O antigen; O denotes the absence of A and B antigens only.
Rh blood group; Rh antigen; positive; negative features the ________ first discovered in rhesus monkeys. Individuals with Rh on their erythrocytes are Rh _________ and those without the Rh antigen are Rh ___________.
8; O+; AB- 3. The ABO and Rh blood groups combined give rise to the __common blood types. Type __ is the most common blood type in the U.S. populations while __ is the least.
antibodies, agglutinins a. When ________, sometimes called _________, bind to surface-bound antigens they cause them to clump together or agglutinate.
hemolysis b. Ultimately, agglutination promotes erythrocyte destruction, a reaction called ___________.
major crossmatch donor's RBCs and recipient's serum
minor crossmatch donor's serum and recipient's RBCs
Created by: 903508329791262
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