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Intro Anatomy Terms

Introduction to the Structure and Function of the Body

QuestionAnswer
abdominopelvic quadrants health professionals divide the abdomen (through the navel) into four areas to help locate specific organs
The Four Quadrants of the Abdominopelvic Cavity Right upper, Left upper, Right lower, Left lower
abdominopelvic regions anatomists have divided the abdomen into nine regions to identify the location of organs
The Nine Regions of the Abdominopelvic Cavity Right hypochondriac region, Epigastric region, Left hypochondriac region, Right lumbar region, Umbilical region, Left lumbar region, Right iliac (inguinal) region, Hypogastric region, Left iliac (inguinal) region
anatomical position the reference position for the body, which gives meaning to directional terms
anatomy the study of the structure of an organism and the relationships of its parts
atrophy wasting away of tissue; decrease in size of a part; sometimes referred to as disuse atrophy
abdominal cavity the cavity containing the abdominal organs
cranial cavity space inside the skull that contains the brain
pelvic cavity the lower portion of the ventral cavity; the distal portion of the abdominopelvic cavity
pleural cavity a subdivision of the thorax
spinal cavity the space inside the spinal column through which the spinal cord passes
thoracic cavity the cavity containing the trachea, heart and lungs
superior higher, opposite of inferior
inferior lower; opposite of superior
control center brain
anterior front or ventral; opposite of posterior or dorsal
posterior located behind; opposite of anterior
ventral of or near the belly; in humans, front or anterior; opposite of dorsal or posterior
dorsal referring to the back; opposite of ventral; in humans, the posterior is dorsal
medial of or toward the middle; opposite of lateral
lateral of or toward the side; opposite of medial
proximal next or nearest; located nearest the center of the body or the point of attachment of a structure
distal toward the end of a structure; opposite of proximal
superficial near the body surface
deep farther away from the body's surface
effector (loop) responding organ; for example, voluntary and involuntary muscle, the heart, and glands
feedback (control loop) a highly complex and integrated communication control network, classified as negative or positive;
homeostasis relative uniformity of the normal body's internal environment
mediastinum a subdivision in the mid-portion of the thoracic cavity
negative feedback (loops) most important and numerous homeostatic control mechanisms
chemical level of organization atoms and molecules
cellular level of organization cells are considered to be the smallest "living" units of structure and function in our body
tissue group of similar cells that perform a common function
organ group of several tissue types that performs a special function
system group of organs arranged so that the group can perform a more complex function than any one organ can perform alone
physiology the study of body function
sagittal longitudinal; like an arrow
midsagittal a cut or plane that divides the body or any of its parts into two equal halves
frontal lengthwise plane running from side to side, dividing the body into anterior and posterior portions
transverse a horizontal or crosswise plane; divides the body or any of its parts into upper and lower portions
positive feedback (loops) stimulatory; amplify or reinforce the change that is occurring
prone used to describe the body lying in a horizontal position facing downward
sensor detects change and sends information to the control center
supine used to describe the body lying in a horizontal position facing upward
Created by: NurseKel