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PANRE Multi system review questions
|You can't fibrillate a patient with what rhythms?
|Asystole or PEA (Pulse-less Electrical Activity)
|This antibiotic is never the correct answer on the boards for staph infection
|Treatment for chlamydia or gonorrhea
|Azithromycin (macrolide) + ceftriaxone
|The electrocardiogram (ECG) demonstrates a short PR interval
|The presence of a short PR interval, frequently with a delta wave
|A short PR interval, <0.12 sec, with a narrow complex QRS and palpitations
|Lown-Ganong-Levine (LGL) syndrome
|an accessory pathway, the Kent bundle, which directly links the atria to the ventricles, bypassing the atrioventricular (AV) node
|Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) pattern
|slurred and broad upstroke of the QRS complex
|The rotator cuff is a group of four muscles that support the shoulder joint. What are the four muscles?
|Supraspinatus, infraspanatus, teres minor and subscapularis
|What is the standard oral antibiotic regimen for prevention of endocarditis in adults with high risk cardiac lesions?
|Amoxicillin 2g PO 30-60 min prior to procedure (for patients not allergic to penicillin)
|What is the standard oral antibiotic regimen for prevention of endocarditis in adults with high risk cardiac lesions who are allergic to PCN?
|Cephalexin 2g or Clindamycin 600mg or Azithromycin 500mg
|A Churg-Strauss Syndrome patient's anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) blood test test comes back positive. What other conditions might he have?
|glomerulonephritis, alveolar hemorrhage, purpura or mononeuritis complex.
|Cough in gi may suggest - suggests a
|malignant trachea-esophageal fistula.
|Hoarseness - may be invasion into the left recurrent laryngeal.
|esophagram - demonstrate an “apple core” or obstructive mass lesion with
|Chemicals irritation to esophagus
|squamous cell cancer.
|alcohol binge drinking and vomiting, over a chronic period of time,
|“apple core” type of appearance.
|Esophageal cancer. Surgery is the only curative option.
|A Schatzki ring, this ring in the esophagus would be
|An esophageal web will be more so in the upper portion. true or false
|the nails and it looks like they’re depressed, spooning of the nails.and the tongue looks beefy, beefy red.
|koilonychia - spooning of the fingernails, spooning, there’s esophageal webs, iron deficiency anemia
|spooning of the fingernails,
|the esophageal web is made up of squamous cell, with persistent irritation may go on to develop dysplasia and
|squamous cell cancer of the esophagus.
|Plummer-Vinson Syndrome treatment
|dilatation of esophageal webs
|The fundus of the stomach herniating into the thoracic cavity?
|what % of your patients with GERD could have an associated hiatal hernia
|GERD associated in immunocompromised patients
|GERD associated with - Herpes, Cytomegalovirus, HIV
|The squamous cells of the esophagus may then turn into or undergo metaplasia into columnar cells.
|Barrett’s esophagus, which is not a cancer, but its metaplasia, is at risk for dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. True or False
|in GERD, there’s decreased relaxation of he esophagus. T or F
|False : in GERD, there’s excessive relaxation.
|What kind of cancer would this be most likely with GERD?
|Adenocarcinoma..You go from Barrett’s esophagus to metaplasia, into dysplasia and into your adenocarcinoma, most likely located in your lower esophagus.
|the perfusion of esophagus with acid to induce the symptoms of GERD
|The Bernstein test
|Gerd use The histamine blockers H2 blocker
|PPIs would be even better for gerd - Proton Pump Inhibitor
|Prevacid, Prilosec, Nexium (the purple pill).
|Treatment if your patient is still exhibiting symptoms of GERD, after H2 blockers and PPIs
|Barrett’s esophagus would be the beginning stages or confirmation that metaplasia is taking place. But this is not cancer, is it? So this is reversible?
|as the Barrett’s esophagus persists _________into columnar, associated with long term acid exposure. ,
|What kind of dysphagia would this be in Barrett's Esophagus ?
|progressive solids first, then liquids
|potassium compounds, NSAIDs , quinidine, iron, , alendronate due to osteoporosis, tetracycline, vitamin C; all this could cause
|Infectious Esophagitis diagnosis
|Endoscopy is the test of choice,
|painful swallowing - odynophagia
|Cytomegalovirus esophagitis, you’d find this ulcer to be
|Cytomegalovirus esophagitis, - biopsy shows
|Cytomegalovirus esophagitis, treatment
|Foscarnet may be necessary for resistance., but also Acyclovir, Gancyclovir, Foscarnet - drugs that you want to keep in mind in the family of Herpes.
|Cytomegalovirus esophagitis, Management,
|Management, it would be IV ganciclovir followed by something like Valgancyclovir and Foscarnet
|Most frequent cause of esophagitis in immunocompromised patients.
|Candida Esophagitis findings
|the pseudo hyphae and the yeast.
|Candida Esophagitis Management
|obstruction of your lower esophageal sphincter.
|Some peptides that you know of that are responsible for normal relaxation physiologically of the LES.
|VIP - Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide, and nitric oxide.
|Failure of the relaxation of LES
|Found in achalasia.
|Necessary to rule out achalasia
|Esophagogastroduodenoscopy necessary to rule out… EGD
|Chagas disease for you, and I keep repeating this, will be responsible for 3 major sites for pathology. 04:11 One would be the esophagus with achalasia, dilation of the proximal esophagus.
|Chagas with amastigotes in the heart destroying the myocardium, resulting in dilated cardiomyopathy.
|Chagas disease down in the intestine. 04:31 Trypanosoma Cruzi resulting in toxic megacolon.
|So what is the confirmatory test for achalasia? It is not endoscopy.
|do an Esophageal motility test