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Circulatory System

What is hematology Study of blood and blood disorders
What is the pH of blood (venous and arterial) and average temp 7.4 (7.35-7.45). 100.4 degrees F
Erythrocyte function Transport O2 and some CO2
What are erythrocytes filled with Cytoplasm filled with hemoglobin that gives blood its red color. No nuclei
Life span of erythrocyte and how is it broken down About 120 days, broken down by macrophages in liver or spleen
Hemoglobin function Carries oxygen throughout body
What values indicate the amount of O2 blood can carry Hematocrit, # of RBC's, and hemoglobin concentration
Iron deficiency anemia Body doesn't have enough iron to build healthy RBCs causing them to be small and pale. Resulting in fatigue, shortness of breath, etc.
Sickle cell anemia Genetic defect in hemoglobin molecule (Hb-S) that changes to amino acids. Found among populations in malaria belt
Reticulocyte count. What would a low count mean Immature red blood cell. Still has portion of nuclei. .5-1.5%. In an anemic person it could mean bone marrow problems (leukemia)
Leukocytes WBC. Cells of the immune system
Granulocytes function WBCs that package potent chemicals into lysosomes
Agranulocytes Do not have granules that stain
What WBCs are granulocytes (ends in -phil) Basophil/mast cells, neutrophils, eosinophils
What WBCs are agranulocytes (ends in -cyte) Monocytes/macrophages, lymphocytes/plasma cells
WBCs from most to least abundant 1. Neutrophils 2. Lymphocytes 3. Monocytes 4. Eosinophils 5. Basophils
Neutrophils function, life span, and nuclei "First responders." Leave blood to fend off infections. Increase during bacterial infections. Release lysosomes which kill bacteria. Live about 8 hours. 2-5 lobes of nuclei. 60-70% of WBC
What is pus Dead neutrophils
What are the three types of Lymphocytes T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells
B cell function Turn into plasma cells that make antibodies. Provide immunological memory. Destroy bacteria & their toxins. Attack invaders outside of cells
T cell function Attack viruses, fungi, transplanted organs, cancer cells, and some bacteria. Assess cell identity. Attack invaders inside the cells.
Natural killer cells function Attack many different microbes and some tumor cells. Destroy foreign invaders by direct attack.
Lymphocytes function Increase in number during viral infections. 20-25% of WBC
Monocyte function and nuclei shape Convert to macrophages in cells of tissues. Largest WBC. Increase in viral infections/inflammation. Take longer to travel to infection, but arrive in large numbers. Clean up debris after infection. Nucleus is horse-shoe shape. 3-8% of WBC
Eosinophils function and nucleus shape Respond to parasitic infection/allergies. Release histaminase (slows down inflammation caused by basophils.) Nucleus with 2 or 3 lobes connected by thin strand. 2-4% of WBC
Basophil function and nucleus shape Increase during chicken pox, diabetes, autoimmune disorders, allergies. Release heparin, histamine, and serotonin which leads to allergic reactions. Large purple/blue shape with lots of dots. <1% of WBC
RBCs are marked with what Genetically determined glycoproteins (surface antigens.) Which determines blood type
What happens during a cross-reaction blood transfusion If you have an interaction with an opposing blood type it causes agglutination (clumping) which results in hemolysis (destruction of RBC)
What blood type is the universal donor and which is the universal recipient O negative and AB positive
Rh- The absence of the protein. Rh- blood will make antibodies after first time exposed. If exposed to Rh+ for a second time, it can be very dangerous.
Platelets function and count Cells fragment that control coagulation. 130,000-400,000
What are the cells of the body serviced by Blood and interstitial fluid
Interstitial fluid Bathes the cells of the body
How do nutrients and oxygen move through the body Diffuse from the blood into the interstitial fluid and then into the cells
How do wastes move through the body In the reverse direction as nutrients/oxygen
Name 3 general functions of blood Transportation, regulates pH/body temp/water content of cells, and protection from disease and blood loss
Average liters of blood in women and men 5-6 L in men (more testosterone) and 4-5 L in women (menstruation)
What happens if the molarity of the dissolved particles in blood is too high Fluid absorption into the blood causes high BP
What happens if the molarity of the dissolved particles in blood is too low Fluid remains in the tissues causing edema (swelling of tissues due to excess of trapped fluid)
Hematocrit definition The ratio of the volume of red blood cells to the total volume of blood.
Hematocrit % 55% plasma & 45% cells (99%-RBCs <1% WBCs and platelets)
What and where is the "buffy coat" The small fraction between the plasma and RBCs of an anti-coagulated blood sample that contains most of the WBCs and platelets
What is plasma mostly made of Water (91.5%)
What are the three types of plasma proteins Albumins, globulins (antibodies), and fibrinogins (help from blood clots)
How are plasma proteins formed By liver (except globulins.) Produced by plasma cells descended from B lymphocytes
Polycythemia Too many RBCs (over 65%)
What is blood doping Injecting previously stored RBCs before an athletic event to increase the amount of cells to deliver O2 to tissues (leads to polycythemia)
What is hemopoiesis The production of red blood cells and platelets, occurs in the bone marrow
What is erythropoietin (EPO) Increase RBCs, produced by the kidneys
What is thrombopoietin (TPO) Hormone that comes from the liver that increases the production of megakarocytes which break down into platelets
What enzyme do erythrocytes contain and name its function Carbonic Anhydrase (CAH.) Produces carbonic acid from CO2 and water. Important role in gas transport and pH balance
What happens if you become hypoxic (low RBCs/O2 transport due to high elevations, increase exercise, hemorrhaging) Sensed by kidneys/liver, EPO production increases, stimulation of red bone marrow = increased RBCs & O2 transport
What is a key requirement for erythropoiesis Iron
What would you take for rapid cell division B12 and folic acid
Hemoglobin transports... 23% of total CO2 waste from tissue cells to lungs for release
What else does hemoglobin transport with CO2 Nitric oxide and super nitric oxide, helping to regulate BP (vasodilation)
What is perfusion The passage of fluid through the circulatory system or lymphatic system to an organ or a tissue, usually referring to the delivery of blood to a capillary bed in a tissue.
Where does vasodilation happen Where O2 is the freshest (based on CO2 levels)
Pernicious anemia Inadequate vit B12 from poor nutrition or lack of intrinsic factor from glands of the stomach
Aplastic anemia Complete cessation (stops creating new RBCs) Cause unknown
Hemorrhagic anemia Loss of blood
Hemolytic anemia RBC destruction
Leukocytosis High white blood cell count (microbes, stertorous exercise, anesthesia or surgery)
Leukopenia Low white blood cell count (radiation, shock, or chemo)
Leukemia Cancer of hemopoietic tissue
What are the three hemostatic mechanisms and what do they involve They all involve platelets. 1. Vascular spasm, 2. platelet plug formation, 3. Blood clotting
Hemostasis definition To stop bleeding in a quick and localized manner when blood vessels are damaged
Vascular spasm Prompt constriction of a broken vessel. Platelets release serotonin (chemical vasoconstrictor.) Provides time for other two mechanisms to work
What chemicals do platelets store in granules needed for platelet plug formation Alpha granules and dense granules
What is the process for the platelet plug formation 1. Platelet adhesion, 2. platelet release reaction, 3. platelet aggregation
Alpha granules Clotting factors and platelet derived growth factor (cause proliferation of vascular endothelial cells, smooth muscle, and fibroblasts, to repair damaged vessels)
Dense granules ADP, ATP, Ca+2, serotonin, fibrin stabilizing factor, and enzymes that produce thromboxane A2 (constricts vessels)
What does the normal endothelium of a blood vessel look like and what happens when broken Very smooth and coated with prostacyclin (repels platelets and causes vasodilation.) When broken it exposes rough surfaces of collagen=platelet plug formation begins
What happens during platelet plug formation Platelet psuedopods stick to damaged vessel/other platelets, psuedopods contract and draw walls of vessel together forming the plug. Positive feedback cycle until the break is sealed.
What happens when platelets degranulate during platelet plug formation Releases serotonin as vasoconstrictor. Releases ADP to attract/degranulate more platelets. Releases thromboxane A2 that promotes aggregation, degranulation, and vasoconstriction.
Platelet adhesion Platelets stick to exposed collagen underlying damaged endothelial cells in vessel wall
Platelet release reaction Platelets activated by adhesion release thromboxane A2, ADP (activating other platelets), and serotonin. These (except ADP) cause vasoconstriction decreasing blood flow through the injured vessel
Platelet aggregation Activated platelets stick together and activate new platelets to form platelet plug. This, reinforced by fibrin threads, is formed during clotting process
Coagulation in simple terms Blood drawn from body thickens into gel from a clot of insoluble fibers (fibrin) where the cells get trapped
Thrombosis Clotting that occurs in unbroken blood vessel (blood clot)
Blood clot dissolution Factor 7 speeds up the formation of kallikrein enzyme which converts plasminogen into plasmin (fibrin-dissolving enzyme or clot buster)
Extrinsic pathway for coagulation Damaged external tissues leak tissue factor 3 to activate factor 7 into blood stream (faster)
Intrinsic pathway for coagulation Damaged endothelium exposes collagen fibers of blood vessel wall activating tissue factor 12. (slower)
Final common pathway for coagulation Tissue factor 10 & 5 to activate prothrombinase which converts prothrombin into thrombine which converts fibrinogen into fibrin
Embolus Clot, air-bubble, or fat from broken bone in the blood
Name two anticoagulants Heparin and warfarin
Hemophilia Genetic lack of any clotting factor affects coagulation. Physical exertion causes bleeding and excruciating pain.
Hemophilia A & B Sex-linked recessive in males (inherited from mother.) A: Missing factor 8 (83% of cases) B: Missing factor 9 (15% of cases)
Hemophilia C Missing factor 11 (autosomal) Less severe because alternate clotting activator exists
RBC antigens Agglutinogens A & B
Plasma antibodies Agglutinins anti -A & -B
RhoGam A shot given to pregnant mother with Rh- blood and Rh+ fetus, right before her 2nd childbirth to stop mother's blood from attacking the fetus'
Thalassemia anemia Hereditary deficiency of hemoglobin
Disseminated intravascular clotting Life threatening paradoxical presence of blood clotting and bleeding at the same time throughout the whole body.
Acute leukemia Uncontrolled production of immature leukocytes. Prevents production of RBCs and platelets
Chronic leukemia Accumulation of mature WBCs
Recycling of hemoglobin Globin: broken down into amino acids and recycled Heme: Split into iron (Fe+3) and biliverdin (green pigment)
Created by: Destynelamar



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