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Epidermis develops from the ectoderm
Dermis develops from the mesoderm
Skin contributes to the regulation of body temperature, sensory perceptions, synthesis of Vitamin D, emotional expression, and serves as reservoir of blood
The skin has how many major layers three
The outer, thinner layer of the skin that consists of epithelial tissue is the epidermis
The inner, thicker layer of the skin that consists of connective tissue is the dermis
The subcutaneous layer located underneath the dermis is a loose areolar/adipose connective tissue that attaches the skin to the underlying tissues and organs
The epidermis is composed of keratinized stratified squamous epithelieum which contains four major CELL TYPES known as keratinocytes, melanocytes, langerhans cells, and merkel cells
Keratinocytes make up 90% of the cells, produce keratin- a tough fibrous protein that provides protection
Melanocytes produce melanin pigment that protects against damage by ultraviolet radiation
Langerhans cells are macrophages that originated in the red bone marrow and are involved in immune responses
Merkel cells function in the sensation of touch along with the other adjacent tactile discs (receptors)
The epidermis is composed of four layers in thin skin and five in thick skin which are stratum basale, stratum spinosum,stratum granulosum, [stratum lucidum], and stratum corneum
Stratum basale or stratum germinativum is always the bottom (deepest) layer where continuous cell division occurs to produce all other layers
Stratum spinosum is a layer of 8-10 keratinocytes
Stratum granulosum are non-diving cells of the third layer that are filled with granules of keratin
Stratum lucidum is the fourth layer that is only present in thick skin of fingertips, palms, and soles
Stratum corneumis always outermost layer composed of 20 layers of flat cell-remnants which are dead keratinocytes filled with keratin protein and no cellular organelles. Continuously shed.
Keratinization is the process of replacing viable cells in the stratum basale with more and more of the waxy keratin protein as cells move from the deepest layer to the surface layer
An even thicker buildup of keratinocytes in the stratum corneum after constant friction can produce a callus
An excess of keratinized cells shed from the scalp is dandruff
Thin (hairy) skin covers all body regions except the palms, palmar surfaces of digits, and soles.
Thick (hairless) skin covers the palms, palmar surfaces of digits, and soles
Skin pigment produced by melanocytes in the stratum basale is melanin; eumelanin (brown to black), pheomelanin (yellow to red)
Clusters of concentrated melanin triggered by exposure to sunlight are freckles
Rate of melanin production determines skin color
Chronic lesions of the skin that are benign are nevi; birthmarks or moles
Malignant melanoma is a cancer of melanocytes
A chronic disorder that causes depigmentation patches in the skin Vitiligo
Congenital disorder characterized by the complete or partial absence of pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes due to a defect of an enzyme involved in the production of melanin is Albinism
The dermis is composed of connective tissue containing collagen and elastic fibers
Created by: 1237810412967709