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Med Term CH4

Med Term CH4 Muscular System

bi- twice
-cele hernia, tumor, swelling
dys- bad, difficult, painful
fasci/o fascia, fibrous band
fibr/o fibrous tissue, fiber
-ia abnormal condition, disease, plural of -ium
-ic pertaining to
kines/o, kinesi/o movement
my/o muscle
-plegia paralsis, stroke
-rrhexis rupture
tax/o coordination, order
ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o tendon, stretch out, extend, strain
ton/o tone, stretching, tension
tri- three
muscle fibers long, slender cells that make up muscles
fascia band of connective tissue that envelops, separates, or binds together muscles or groups of muscles
myofascial pertaining to muscle tissue and fascia
tendon narrow band of nonelastic, dense, fibrous connective tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone
ligaments bands of fibrous tissue that form joints by connecting one bone to another bone
patellar tendon attaches muscles to the bottom of the patella
achilles tendon attaches the gastrocnemius muscle to the heel bone
aponeurosis sheet-like fibrous connective tissue resembling a flattened tendon that connects muscles together or to a bone
3 types of muscle tissue skeletal, smooth, & myocardial
skeletal muscles attached to bones of the skeleton and make body motions possible. aka voluntary muscles, striated muscles
striated striped
voluntary muscles skeletal muscles - we have conscious control over these muscles
striated muscles skeletal muscles - under a microscope the dark & light bands in the muscle fibers create a striped appearance.
smooth muscle locations located in walls of internal organs such as the digestive tract, blood vessels, & ducts leading from glands.
smooth muscle functions move & control flow of fluids. aka involuntary muscles, unstriated muscles, visceral muscles
involuntary muscles smooth muscle, under control of autonomic nervous system & are not under voluntary control.
unstriated muscles smooth muscle, do not have dark and light bands like striated
visceral muscles smooth muscle, found in hollow structures such as those of the digestive tract & urinary systems. Found in LG internal organs
visceral relating to the internal organs
myocardial muscles aka myocardium or cardiac muscle, form muscular walls of the heart. Like striated in appearance, smooth muscle b/c involuntary. Constant contraction/ relaxation = heartbeat
muscle innervation stimulation of a muscle by an impulse transmitted by a motor nerve. Control voluntary muscle contractions
neuromuscular pertaining to the relationship btw an nerve & muscle
antagonistic working in opposition to each other - muscles are antagonistic pairs
contraction tightening of a muscle, becomes shorter and thicker causing belly (center) to enlarge
relaxation occurs when muscle returns to its original form, becomes longer and thinner, belly no longer enlarged
abduction movement of a limb away from the midline of the body
abductor muscle moves a body part away from the midline
adduction movement of a limb toward the midline of the body
adductor muscle moves body part toward midline
flexion decreasing the angle btw 2 bones by bending a limb at a joint
extension increasing the angle btw 2 bones or the straightening out of a limb
extensor muscle straightens limb at a joint
hyperextension extreme overextension of a limb or body part beyond its normal limit.
elevation act of raising or lifting a body part
levator anguli oris muscles of the face that raise the corners of the mouth into a smile
levator muscle muscle that raises body part
depressor anguli oris lowers corners of mouth to a frown
depressor muscle lowers body part
rotation circular movement around an axis such as shoulder joint
axis imaginary line that runs lengthwise through the center of the body, & rotation turns a bone on its own axis
circumduction circular movement at far end of limb.
rotator muscle turns a body part on its axis
rotator cuff group of muscles & their tendons that hold the head of the humerous securely in place as it rotates w/in shoulder joint
supination act of rotating the arm or leg so that palm of hand or sole of foot is turned forward or upward.
pronation act of rotating arm or leg so that the palm of the hand or sole of the foot is turned downward or backward
dorsiflexion movement that bends food upward at ankle, decreases angle
plantar flexion movement that bends foot downward at ankle, increasing angle
plantar pertaining to the sole of the foot
superficial muscles located near the surface, just under skin
origin where muscle begins, located nearest midline of body or on a less movable part of skeleton.
insertion where the muscle ends by attaching to a bone or tendon, more movable attachment
sternocleidomastoid muscle helps bend neck and rotate head. Named for 2 points of origin: stern/o breastbone, cleid/o collar bone. Mastoid muscle to mastoid process
cleid/o collar bone
mastoid process part of temporal bone that is located just behind ear
flexor carpi muscles make flexion of the wrist possible
extensor carpi muscles make extension of the wrist possible
carpi wrist or wrist bones
pectoralis major thick, fan-shaped muscle situated on the anterior chest wall
pectoral relating to the chest
lateralis toward the side
vastus lateralis large muscle toward the outer side of the leg.
vastus Latin = huge
medialis toward the midline
vastus medialis muscle toward the midline of the leg, part of quadriceps that flex & extend leg at knee
oblique slanted or at an angle
rectus straight alignment w/ vertical axis of the body.
sphincter ring-like muscle that tightly constricts the opening of a passageway.
transverse in a crosswise direction
biceps brachii aka biceps, formed from two division
triceps brachii aka triceps, formed from 3 divisions
gluteus maximus largest muscle of buttock, great or large
deltoid muscle located on shoulder, shaped like inverted triangle, Greek delta symbol
hamstring group back of upper leg, knee flexion and hip extension: biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus muscles
frontalis muscle aka occipitofrontalis, muscle in forehead that raises & lowers eyebrows
temporalis muscle muscle moves the lower jaw up and back to close mouth
masseter muscle one of the strongest in body, moves lower jaw up to close mouth when chewing
pectoralis major in men, makes up bulk of chest muscles & in women lies under breast
external oblique muscles flex and rotate the vertebral column, flex torso & compress the abdomen.
internal oblique muscles flex the spine, support the abdominal contents, help breathe, & rotate spine
rectus abdominus helps flex the trunk, assists in breathing, supports spine
transverse abdominis located on the side of the abdomen. Core muscle that is engaged when a person laughs or coughs
deltoid forms muscular cap of shoulder
trapezius muscle moves the head and shoulder blade
biceps brachii located in anterior upper arm, flexes elbow
triceps brachii located in posterior upper arm, extends elbow
rectus femoris extends leg @ knee
quadriceps femoris 4 muscles including: vastus lateralis & vastis medialis, which flex & extend the leg at the knee
hamstring group involved in knee flexion & hip extension
gastrocnemius calf muscle that flexes the knee & bends the foot downward. Latin: stomach of the leg, from bulge
exercise physiologist specialist who works under physician to develop, implement, & coordinate exercise programs & administer fitness tests
neurologist physician who specializes in treating causes of paralysis & similar muscular disorders
occupational therapist OT, helps enable patients to participate in activities of daily life , including self-care, education ,work, social
physiatrist physician who specializes in physical medicine & rehab w/ focus on restoring function.
rehabilitation restoration, following disease, illness, or injury, of the ability to function in a normal or near-normal manner
physical therapist PT, provides treatment to prevent disability or restore function through use of exercise, heat, massage, or other techniques
sports medicine physician specializes in treating sports-related injuries of bones, joints, muscles
fasciitis inflammation of a fascia
fibromyalgia debilitating chronic condition characterized by fatigue,; diffuse or specific muscle, joint, or bone pain
debilitating condition causing weakness
tenosynovitis inflammation of the sheath surrounding a tendon
tendinitis or tendonitis, inflammation of the tendons caused by excessive or unusual use of joint
chronic fatigue syndrome CFS, disorder of unknown cause that affects many body systems, symptoms similar to fibromyalgia & may be related
myaligic encephalomeylitis aka chronic fatigue syndrome
adhesion band of fibrous tissue that holds structures together abnormally. Can form in muscles or internal organs from injury or surgery
atrophy weakness or wearing away of body tissues & structures. Can be from pathology or by disuse of muscle over long period
myalgia tenderness or pain in muscles
myocele herniation (protrusion) of muscle substance through a tear in the fascia surrounding it
hernia protrusion of a part of a structure through the tissues normally containing it
myolysis degeneration of muscle tissue
degeneration deterioration or breaking down
deterioration process of becoming worse
myorrhexis rupture or tearing of a muscle
polymyositis muscle disease characterized by simultaneous inflammation and weakening of voluntary muscles in many parts of body.
rhabdomyolysis serious syndrome that can result from a direct or indirect muscle injury
sarcopenia loss of muscle mass, strength, & function that come w/ aging. Can be slowed/ improved w/ fitness but not stopped
muscle tone state of balanced muscle tension that makes normal posture, coordination, & movement possible
atonic lacking normal muscle tone or strength
dystonia condition of abnormal muscle tone that causes the impairment of voluntary muscle movement
hypotonia condition in which there is diminished tone of the skeletal muscles
ataxia lack of muscle coordination during voluntary movement, often shaky and unsteady, likely abnormal activity in cerebellum
contracture permanent tightening of fascia, muscles, tendons, ligaments, or skin that occurs when normally elastic connective tissues are replaced w/ nonelastic. Scarring or lack of activity
intermittent claudication pain in leg muscles that occur during exercise & relieved by rest. Poor circulation
intermittent coming and going at intervals
claudication limping
spasm any sudden, involuntary contraction of one or more muscles.
tic repeated spasm, often involving eyelids or face. Difficult or impossible to control
myoclonus quick, involuntary jerking of a muscle or groups of muscles. might happen when falling asleep as jerks, shakes, spasms
singultus aka hiccups, myoclonus of the diaphram that causes sound of hiccups w/ each spasm
cramp aka charley horse, painful localized muscle spasm often named for its cause, menstrual cramps or writer's cramp
torticollis aka wryneck, stiff neck due to spasmodic contraction of neck muscles that pull head toward the affected side.
bradykinesia extreme slowness in movement - symptom of Parkinson's disease
dyskinesia distortion or impairment of voluntary movement resulting in fragmented or jerky motions
hyperkinesia aka hyperactivity, abnormally increased muscle function or activity
myasthenia gravis chronic autoimmune disease that affects the neuromuscular junction and produces serious weakness of voluntary muscles.
myasthenia muscle weakness
gravis Latin: grave, serious
muscular dystrophy group of more than 30 genetic diseases characterized by progressive weakness & degeneration of skeletal muscles that control movement, w/o affecting nervous system
Duchenne muscular dystrophy DMD, most common form of MD in children. Primarily affects boys starting 3-5 and progresses so can't walk by 12
Becker muscular dystrophy BMD similar, but less severe than DMD
repetitive stress disorder aka repetitive motion disorders, variety of muscular conditions that result from repeated motions performed normally.
compartment syndrome involves compression of nerves & blood vessels due to swelling w/in the "compartment". Caused by trauma, tight bandages, repetitive activities
"compartment" enclosed space created by the fascia that separates groups of muscles
overuse injuries minor tissue injuries that have not been given time to heal
overuse tendinitis aka overuse tendinosis, inflammation of tendons caused by excessive or unusual use of a joint
stress fractures usually overuse injuries
myofascial pain syndrome chronic pain disorder that affects muscles & fascia throughout body.
trigger points tender areas that most commonly develop where the fascia comes into contact w/ a muscle
referred pain pain that originates in one area but felt in another
impingement syndrome occurs when inflamed & swollen tendons are caught in the narrow space btw the bones w/in the shoulder joint
rotator cuff tendinitis aka tennis shoulder, pitcher's shoulder, inflammation of the tendons of the rotator cuff
ruptured rotator cuff when rotator cuff tendinitis is left untreated or if overuse continues. Irritated tendon weakens and tears
carpal tunnel syndrome symptoms occur when the tendons that pass through the carpal tunnel are chronically overused & become inflamed & swollen
carpal tunnel narrow, bony passage under the carpal ligament that is located just below inner surface of the wrist. Median nerve & tendons that bend fingers pass through this tunnel
carpal tunnel release surgical enlargement of the carpal tunnel or cutting of carpal ligament to relieve pressure on tendons & nerves
ganglion cyst harmless, fluid-filled swelling that occurs most commonly on the outer surface of the wrist.
epicondylitis inflammation of the tissues surrounding the elbow
condyle round prominence at end of a bone
lateral epicondylitis aka tennis elbow, characterized by pain on outer side of forearm
medial epicondylitis aka golfer's elbow, characterized by pain on the palm-side of the forearm
heel spur calcium deposit in the plantar fascia near its attachment to the calcaneus (heel) bone.
plantar fasciitis an inflammation of the plantar fascia on the sole of the foot. Causes foot or heel pain when walking/ running.
sprain injury to a joint, such as ankle, knee, or wrist, which usually occurs when ligament is wrenched or torn
strain injury to the body of the muscle or to the attachment of a tendon. Associated w/ overuse injuries that involve a stretched or torn muscle or tendon attachment
shin splint painful condition caused by the tibialis anterior muscle tearing away from the tibia (shin bone)
where can shin splints occur? anterolateral (front and side) muscles or posteromedial (back & middle) muscles of the lower leg.
hamstring injury can be a strain or tear on any of the 3 hamstring muscles that straighten the hip and bend the knee.
Achilles tendinitis painful inflammation of the Achilles tendon caused by excessive stress on that tendon
spinal cord injury SCI, determined by level of injury - the higher, the greater are of body affected
incomplete injury SCI: person has some function below the level of the injury, even though the function isn't normal
complete injury SCI: complete loss of sensation & muscle control below the level of the injury
paralysis loss of sensation & voluntary muscle movements in a muscle through disease or injury to its nerve supply. Temp or perm
myoparesis weakness or slight muscular paralysis
hemiparesis slight paralysis or weakness affecting one side of body
hemiplegia total paralysis affecting only one side of the body - likely from stroke or brain damage
hemiplegic a person affected w/ hemiplegia
paraplegia paralysis of both legs & lower part of body
paraplegic person affected w/ paraplegia
quadriplegia paralysis of all four extremities
quadriplegic person affected w/ quadriplegia
deep tendon reflexes DTRs, tested w/ reflex hammer that is used to strike a tendon. No or abnormal response = disruption of nerve supply to muscles
reflex involuntary response to a stimulus
range-of-motion testing ROM, diagnostic procedure to evaluate joint mobility & muscle strength. ROM exercises increase mobility/ strength
electromyography EMG, diagnostic test that measures electrical activity w/in muscle fibers in response to nerve stimulation
electromyogram record from electromyography
muscle biopsy removal of a plug of tissue for examination, biopsy needle.
antispasmodic aka anticholinergic, administered to suppress smooth muscle contractions of stomach, intestine, bladder
atropine antispasmodic that can be administered preoperatively to relax smooth muscles during surgery
skeletal muscle relaxant administered to relax certain muscles & to relieve stiffness, pain, & discomfort caused by strains, sprains, or other muscle injuries
neuromuscular blocker aka neuromuscular blocking agent, drug that causes temp paralysis by blocking transmission of nerve stimuli to muscles
adjunct in addition to
ergonomics study of the human factors that affect the design & operation of tools & the work environment.
myofascial release specialized soft-tissue manipulation technique used to ease pain of certain conditions.
occupational therapy OT, consists of activities to promote recovery & rehab to assist patients in performing daily activities
ADL activities of daily living
physical therapy PT, treatment to prevent disability or restore function through use of exercise, heat, massage, or other techniques
therapeutic ultrasound high-frequency sound waves to treat muscle injuries by generating heat deep w/in muscle
transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation TENS, device that delivers electrical impulses through the skin, which cause changes in muscles.
RICE most common first aid treatment of muscular injuries. Rest, Ice, Compression, & Elevation.
fasciotomy surgical incision through fascia to relieve tension or pressure
fascioplasty surgical repair of fascia
tenodesis surgical suturing of the end of a tendon to a bone
tenolysis release of a tendon from adhesions
tenorrphaphy surgical suturing together of the divided ends of a tendon
tenotomy a surgical incision into a tendon
ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle tenotomy PNT, used to treat chronic tendon pain by using ultrasound-guided needle insertions to stimulate scar tissue healing.
platelet-rich plasma therapy can be used in conjunction w/ PNT, some of patient's blood is injected into scar tissue to promote increased blood flow/ healing
myorrhaphy surgical suturing of a muscle
myotomy surgical incision into a muscle
CTS Carpal tunnel syndrome
CFS chronic fatigue syndrome
EMG electromyography
hemi hemiplegia
IC intermittent claudication
MD muscular dystrophy
MG myasthenia gravis
OT occupational therapy
PM polymyositis
quad quadriplegia
RSD repetitive stress disorder
ROM range-of-motion testing
Created by: kld0519
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