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Med Term CH3

Med Term CH3 Skeletal System

TermDefinition
ankyl/o crooked, bent, stiff
arthr/o joint
burs/o bursa
chondr/i, chondr/o cartilage
cost/o rib
crani/o skull
-desis to bind, tie together
kyph/o bent, hump
lord/o curve, swayback, bent
-lysis loosening or setting free
myel/o spinal cord, bone marrow
oss/e, oss/i, ost/o, oste/o bone
scoli/o curved, bent
spondyl/o vertebrae, vertebral column, backbone
synovi/o, synov/o synovial membrane, synovial fluid
Bones (combining forms/ functions) oss/e, oss/i, oste/o, ost/o, framework of body, protect internal organs, store calcium
Bone Marrow (combing forms/ functions) myel/o, red bone marrow helps form red blood cells, yellow marrow stores fat.
Cartilage (combining forms/ functions) chondr/o, creates smooth surface for motion w/in joints & protects ends of bones
Joints (combining forms/ functions) arthr/o, work w/ muscles to make variety of motions possible
Ligaments (combining forms/ functions) ligament/o, connect one bone to another
Synovial Membrane (combining forms/ functions) synovi/o, synov/o, forms lining of synovial joints & secretes synovial fluid.
Synovial Fluid (combining forms/ functions) synovi/o, synov/o, lubricant that makes smooth joint movements possible.
Bursa (combining forms/ functions) burs/o, cushions areas subject to friction during movement
ossification at 3 months, cartilage begins to form bones via this process & continues through adolescence.
connective tissue Bone is a form of this & 2nd hardest tissue in body. Dental enamel harder.
periosteum tough, fibrous tissue that forms the outermost covering of bone
compact bone aka cortical bone, is dense, hard, & very strong bone that forms the protective outer layer of bones. 75% of bone matter by weight
spongy bone aka cancellous bone, porous & sponge-like, red bone marrow located here @ ends/ inner portion of long bones
long bones femur & humerous
medullary cavity central cavity located in the shaft of long bones, surrounded by compact bone. Red/ yellow marrow stored
medullary pertaining to the inner section
endosteum tissue that lines the medullary cavity
red bone marrow located in spongy bone, hemopoietic tissue mfg's red blood cells, hemoglobin, white blood cells, & thrombocytes
hemopoietic pertaining to the formation of blood cells. Also hematopoietic
yellow bone marrow fat storage area, located in medullary cavity of long bones.
bone marrow birth - adult most marrow is red from birth through early adolescences, then approx 1/2 gradually replaced by yellow
cartilage smooth, rubbery, blue-white connective tissue that acts as a shock absorber btw bones. More elastic than bone
articular cartilage covers surfaces of bones where they articulate or come together to form joints. Smooth joint movements, bone protection
meniscus curved, fibrous cartilage found in some joints like knee & temporomandibular joint of jaw
diaphysis shaft of long bone
epiphyses wider ends of long bones such as femurs. Protected w/ articular cartilage
proximal epiphysis end of bone located nearest to midline
distal epiphysis end of bone located farthest from midline
foramen opening in bone through which blood vessels, nerves, ligaments pass.
Explain foramen magnum spinal cord passes through this opening in the occipital bone at base of skull
process normal projection on surface of bone that serves as attachment for muscle or tendon
mastoid process bony projection located on the temporal bones just behind the ears.
joints aka articulations, place of union btw 2 or more bones. Classified by construction or degree of movement
fibrous joints consist of inflexible layers of dense connective tissue, holds bones tightly together. aka sutures in adults - no movement
fontanelles aka soft spots present on newborn skull that allow passage through birth canal + growth in 1st yr. Sutures close w/ age
cartilaginous joints allow only slight movement & consist of bones connected entirely by cartilage. Ex rib to sternum
pubic symphysis allows some movement to facilitate childbirth. btw pubic bones in anterior of pelvis
synovial joint created where 2 bones articulate to permit a variety of motions. described based on motion
ball-and-socket joints hips, shoulders, allow wide range of movement in many directions
hinge joints knees, elbows, synovial joints that allow movement primarily in one direction or plane
synovial capsule component of s.joint that is the outermost layer of strong fibrous tissue resembling a sleeve as it surrounds joint
synovial membrane component of s. joint that lines the capsule & secretes synovial fluid
synovial fluid component of s.joint which flows w/in synovial cavity, acts as lubricant to make smooth movement of joint possible
ligaments bands of fibrous tissue that form joints by connecting one bone to another bone or joining bone to cartilage
bursa fibrous sac that acts as a cushion to ease movement in areas subject to friction like shoulder, elbow, knee
axial skeleton Protects major organs of the nervous, respiratory, & circulatory system. 80 bones of head & body.
axial skeleton 5 parts bones of skull, ossicles of ears, hyoid bone (chin & thyroid), rib cage, vertebral column
2 divisions of skeleton axial and appendicular
appendicular skeleton makes body movement possible & protects organs of digestion, excretion, & reproduction. 126 bones - upper/ lower extremeties
appendicular skeleton upper extremities shoulders, arms, forearms, wrists, hands
appendicular skeleton lower extremities hips, thighs, legs, ankles, feet
appendage anything attached to major part of body
appendicular referring to an appendage
extremity terminal end of a body part such as arm or leg
bones of the skull 8 form cranium, 14 form face, 6 in middle ear
cranium skull, 8 bones, protects brain, joined by fibrous joints called sutures
frontal bone cranial: anterior portion that forms forehead & houses sinuses/ eyeball socket
parietal bones cranial: 2 of the largest bones of skull, form most of roof & upper sides of cranium
occipital bone cranial: forms back part of skull & base of cranium
temporal bones cranial: 2 form sides/ base of cranium
external auditory meatus cranial: opening of external auditory canal of outer ear. Canal located w/in temporal bone on ea side of skull
meatus external opening of a canal
sphenoid bone cranial: irregular, wedge-shaped bone at base of skull. helps form base of skull & makes contact w/ all other cranial bones.
ethmoid bone cranial: light, spongy bone located at roof & sides of nose. Separates nasal cavity from brain & is portion of orbits
orbit bony socket that surrounds & protects each eyeball
auditory ossicles 3 tiny bones located in ea middle ear: malleus, incus, stapes.
bones of the face 14. Some contain air-filled cavities known as sinuses.
sinuses lighten weight of skull
nasal bones face: 2 form upper part of bridge of nose
zygomatic bones face: cheekbones, articulate w/ front bone
maxillary bones face: aka maxillae, form most of upper jaw
palatine bones face: form the anterior part of hard palate of mouth & floor of nose
lacrimal bones face: part of orbit @ inner angle
inferior conchae face: thin, scroll-like bones that form part of interior of nose
vomer bone face: forms base for nasal septum
nasal septum cartilage wall that divides the 2 nasal cavities
mandible face: jawbone, only movable bone of skull. Attached @ TMJ
TMJ temporomandibular joint, where mandible attaches to skull
thoracic cavity aka rib cage. Bony structure that protects heart & lungs. Ribs, sternum, upper portion of spinal column - neck to diaphragm
ribs 12 pairs, aka costals, attached posteriorly to thoracic vertebra
true ribs 1st 7 pair of ribs, attaching anteriorly to sternum
false ribs 3 pairs of ribs after true ribs. Attach anteriorly to cartilage that connects them to sternum
floating ribs last 2 pairs of ribs, after false ribs. Only attached posteriorly to vertebrae & not attached anteriorly
sternum aka breast bone. Flat, dagger-shaped bone in middle of chest.
manubrium bony structure that forms the upper portion of the sternum
bony of the sternum aka gladiolus, bony structure that forms the middle portion of the sternum
xiphoid process structure made of cartilage that forms the lower portion of the sternum. Greek: straight sword
pectoral girdle aka shoulder girdle, shoulders, which supports arms & hands.
clavicle shoulder girdle: aka collar bone, slender bone that connects the manubrium of sternum to scapula
scapula shoulder girdle: aka shoulder blade
acromion shoulder girdle: extension of scapula that forms the high point of shoulder.
humerous arms: bone of upper arm
radius arms: smaller & shorter bone in forearm on thumb side
ulna arms: larger & longer bone of forearm, proximal end articulates with distal end of humerous to form elbow joint
olecranon process aka funny bone, large projection on upper end of ulna, forms point of elbow & exposes a nerve that tingles when struck
bones of wrist 8 carpals, form bony carpal tunnel passage
carpal tunnel in wrist, median nerve & tendons of fingers pass through this tunnel
metacarpals 5 bones in palm of hand
phalanges 14 bones of fingers - singular phalanx (same w/ toes)
3 bones in each finger distal, middle, proximal (same w/ toes)
2 bones in thumb distal & proximal (same w/ toes)
spinal column aka vertebral column, protects spinal cord & supports head/ body, 26 vertebrae.
vertebral pertaining to the spinal column
structures of vertebra body, lamina, foramen
body of vertebra anterior portion that is solid to provide strength
lamina posterior portion, transverse & spinous processes extend from this area & are attachments for muscles/ tendons
vertebral foramen opening in middle of vertebra, allows spinal cord to pass through & protect spinal cord.
intervertebral disks made of cartilage, separate & cushion the vertebrae from each other, shock absorbers & allow spinal column movement.
cervical vertebrae 1st 7 set of vertebrae forming neck. C1-C7
cervical pertaining to the neck
thoracic vertebrae 2nd set of 12 vertebrae after cervical, form outward curve of spine, each has pair of ribs attached, T1-T12
thoracic pertaining to the thoracic cavity
lumbar vertebrae 3rd set of 5 vertebrae that form inward curve of lower spine, largest & strongest & bear most of body's weight, L1-L5
lumbar pertaining to the part of the back & sides btw ribs & pelvis
sacrum next-to-last vertebrae, slightly curved, triangular-shaped bone near base of spine that forms lower portion of back.
sacrum @ birth 5 separate bones that fuse together in childhood to form 1
coccyx aka tailbone, last vertebrae, forms end of spine & made up of 4 sm vertebrae fused together. Coccyx: Greek, cuckoo (shape of beak)
pelvis aka bony pelvis, protects internal organs & supports lower extremities. Includes pelvic girdle, sacrum, & coccyx
pelvic girdle cup-shaped ring of bone @ lower end of trunk consisting of ilium, ischium, & pubis.
ilium broad, blade-shaped bone that forms back & sides of pubic bone
sacroiliac slightly movable articulation btw sacrum & posterior portion of ilium
ischium forms lower posterior portion of pubic bone, bears weight of body when sitting
pubis forms anterior portion of pubic bone, located just below urinary bladder
pubic bones @ birth ilium, ischium, & pubis are separate, but fuse in childhood to form LT & RT pubic bones held together by pubic symphysis.
symphysis place where 2 bones are closely joined
pubic symphysis cartilaginous joint that unites LT & RT pubic bones. Allows slight movement btw bones.
acetabulum aka hip socket, LG circular cavity in ea side of pelvis that articulates w/ head of femur to form hip joint
femurs leg: largest bone in body, thigh bones, head articulates w/ acetabulum, neck is narrow area below head
femoral pertaining to the femur
knees leg: patella, popliteal, cruciate ligaments
patella aka kneecap, bony anterior portion of knee
popliteal posterior space behind knee where ligaments, vessels, & muscles for this joint are located
cruciate ligaments make knee movements possible, anterior & posterior cruciate ligaments shaped like a cross
lower leg tibia & fibula
tibia aka shinbone, larger anterior weight-bearing bone of lower leg
fibula smaller of the 2 bones of lower leg
ankles joints that connect lower leg to foot & make movement possible.
tarsals 7, similar to bones of wrist but much stronger & larger
malleolus rounded bony projection on tibia & fibula on each side of ankle joint
talus ankle bone that articulates w/ tibia & fibula
calcaneous aka heel bone, largest of tarsal bones
metatarsals 5 that form part of foot to which toes are attached
chiropractor DC, Doctor of Chiropractic, specializes in manipulative treatment of disorders originating from misalignment of spine
manipulative treatment manually adjusting positions of the bones
orthopedic surgeon DO, Doctor of Osteopathy, uses traditional med treatments in addition to spinal manipulation. aka osteropathy
osteopathy DO, Doctor of Osteopathy OR any bone disease
podiatrist DP, Doctor of Podiatry, specializes in diagnosing & treating disorders of foot (aka DPM)
rheumatologist physician who specializes in diagnosis & treatment of arthritis & disorders such as osteoporsis, fibromyalgia, & tendinitis
ankylosis loss or absence of mobility in a joint due to disease, injury, or a surgical procedure.
mobility being capable of movement
adhesive capsulitis aka frozen shoulder, painful ankylosis of the shoulder, caused by adhesions making joint thicker & tighter
arthrosclerosis stiffness of the joints, especially in the elderly
Baker's cyst aka popliteal cyst, fluid-filled sac behind knee. Usually from condition triggering production of excess synovial fluid.
bursitis inflammation of the bursa
chondromalacia abnormal softening of cartilage
costochondritis inflammation of cartilage that connects rib to sternum
hallux valgus aka bunion, abnormal enlargement of the joint at base of great toe
hemarthrosis blood w/in a joint, frequently due to joint injury, can happen taking blood thinners or clotting issues
polymyalgia inflammatory disorder of muscles & joints characterized by pain & stiffness in neck, shoulders, upper arms, hips, thighs.
rheumatica Latin word for rheumatism, which is obsolete term for arthritis
sprain occurs when ligament that connects bones to a joint is wrenched or torn
synovitis inflammation of synovial membrane that results in swelling & pain of affected joint
dislocation aka luxation, total displacement of a bone from its joint
subluxation partial displacement of bone from its joint
arthritis inflammatory condition of one or more joints, more than 100 types
osteoarthritis aka wear-and-tear arthritis, commonly associated w/ aging, characterized by hypertrophy of bone & formation of osteophytes
degenerative joint disease oseoarthritis - wearing away of articular cartilage
degenerative breaking down or impairment of body parts
osteophytes bone spurs, associated with osteoarthritis
spondylosis aka spinal osteoarthritis, degenerative disorder causing loss of normal spinal structure & function
gout aka gouty arthritis, deposits of uric acid crystals in joints, usually starting w/ big toe. Red, warm, excruciatingly sensitive
rheumatoid arthritis aka RA, chronic autoimmune disorder where joints & some organs of other body systems attacked.
ankylosing spondylitis form of rheumatoid arthritis that primarily causes inflammation of joints btw vertebrae. aka spondyloarthropathies
juvenile rheumatiod arthritis JRA, autoimmune disorder 16 yr & under, stiffness, pain, joint swelling, skin rash, fever, slowed growth, fatigue. most outgrow
herniated disk aka slipped/ ruptured, the breaking apart of an intervertebral disk that results in pressure on spinal nerve roots
lumbago aka low back pain, pain of lumbar region of spine
spondylolisthesis forward slipping movement of the body of one of the lower lumbar vertebrae on the vertebra or sacrum below it
-listhesis slipping
spina bifida congenital defect that occurs in early pregnancy when spinal canal fails to close completely around spinal cord to protect it
spina pertaining to the spine
bifida split
kyphosis aka humpback or dowager's hump, abnormal increase in outward curvature of thoracic spine as viewed from side
lordosis aka swayback, abnormal increase in forward curvature of lumbar spine
scoliosis abnormal lateral (sideways) curvature of spine
avascular necrosis aka osteonecrosis, bone tissue death from insufficient blood flow. most common in hip joint
craniostenosis malformation of skull due to premature closure of cranial sutures
osteitis or ostitis, an inflammation of bone
osteomalacia aka adult rickets, abnormal softening of bones in adults. Deficiency of vit D, calcium, &/or phosphate.
osteomyelitis inflammation of the bone marrow & adjacent bone. caused by a bacterial infections often originating elsewhere
Paget's disease chronic bone disease of unknown cause. Abnormal breakdown of bone, usually in pelvis, skull, spine, legs.
periostitis inflammation of the periosteum. Associated w/ shin splints.
rickets deficiency disease occurring in children. Defective bone growth resulting from lack of vitamin D.
short stature formerly dwarfism, failure of bones of limbs to grow to appropriate length. 200 kinds, no more than 4'10"
talipes aka clubfoot, any congenital deformity of the foot involving the talus (ankle bones)
primary bone cancer relatively rare malignant tumor that originates in bone.
malignant becoming progressively worse & life-threatening
Ewing's sarcoma tumor that occurs in bones of upper arms, legs, pelvis, or rib. Peak age 10-20 yr
secondary bone cancer tumors that have metastasized (spread) to bones from other organs.
metastasized spread
myeloma type of cancer that occurs in blood-making cells found in red bone marrow. Causes pathologic fractures, usually fatal
osteochrondroma benign bony projection covered w/ cartilage, tumor known as an exostosis
benign something not life-threatening & does not recur
osteoporosis marked loss of bone density & increase in bone porosity, associated w/ aging.
osteopenia thinner-than-avg bone density. Doesn't have osteoporosis yet, but showing signs. Risk: aging, smoking, drinking, no calcium
osteoporosis-related fractures compression, Colles', hip
compression fracture aka vertebral crush fracture, occurs when bone is pressed together (compressed) on self. can develop dowager's hump
Colles' fracture aka fractured wrist, occurs at lower end of radius when person tries to stop a fall
osteoporotic hip fracture aka broken hip, caused by weakening of bones due to osteoporosis & spontaneous or from fall.
osteoporotic pertaining to or caused by the porous condition of bones
fracture aka broken bone
closed fracture aka simple fracture, complete fracture, bone is broken but no open wound in the skin
open fracture aka compound fracture, one in which bone is broken & there is open wound in the skin
comminuted fracture bone is splintered or crushed.
comminuted crushed into small pieces
greenstick fracture aka incomplete fracture, bone is bent and only partially broken, primarily in children
oblique fracture occurs at an angle across the bone
pathologic fracture occurs when weakened bone breaks under normal strain. Weakened from disease or osteoporosis.
spiral fracture bone has been twisted apart, severe twisting motion seen in sports
stress fracture overuse injury, small crack in bone developing from chronic, excessive impact
transverse fracture straight across bone
fat embolus can form when long bone is fractured & fat cells from yellow marrow are released into blood
embolus any foreign matter circulating in the blood that can become lodged & block the blood vessel
crepitation aka crepitus, grating sound heard when ends of broken bone move together. Popping/ clicking of joints.
callus formed as bone heals, bulging deposit around area of break. This tissue eventually becomes bone. OR thickening of skin
radiograph aka x-ray, use of x-radiation to visualize bone fractures & other abnormalities
arthroscopy visual examination of internal structure of joint using arthroscope
bone marrow biopsy diagnostic test that may be necessary after abnormal types or #'s of red/ white blood cells found in blood test
bone marrow aspiration use of syringe to withdraw tissue from red bone marrow.
magnetic resonance imaging MRI, used to image soft tissue
bone density testing BDT, used to determine losses or changes in bone density. used to diagnose conditions like osteoporosis.
ultrasonic bone density testing screening test for osteoporosis. Sound waves used to take measurements of calcaneus bone
dual x-ray absorptionmetry DXA, low-exposure radiographic measurement of spine & hips to measure bone density - more accurate than ultrasonic
bone marrow transplant BMT, used to treat certain types of cancers which affect bone marrow. 2 types: allogenic & autologous
allogenic bone marrow transplant uses healthy bone marrow cells from compatible donor.
allogenic originating within another
autologous bone marrow transplant patient receives his or her own bone marrow cells that have been harvested, cleansed, treated, & stored before remaining destroyed
autologous originating within an individual
orthotic mechanical appliance, like shoe insert, leg brace, splint that is specially designed to control or correct
prosthesis substitute for diseased or missing body part - like an amputated leg
arthrodesis aka surgical ankylosis, surgical fusion of 2 bones to stiffen a joint.
arthrolysis surgical loosening of an ankylosed joint
-desis to bind
-lysis loosening or setting free
arthroscopic surgery minimally invasive procedure for treatment of interior of a joint
chondroplasty surgical repair of damaged cartilage
synovectomy surgical removal of synovial membrane from a joint. ex to repair joint damage
arthroplasty surgical repair of a damaged joint, but has also come to mean the surgical placement of an artificial joint
implant replacement part, prothesis
total knee replacement TKR, aka total knee arthroplasty - all parts of knee replaced
partial knee replacement PKR, only part of knee replaced
total hip replacement THR, aka total hip arthroplasty - restores damaged hip to full function, femur head replaced w/ metal ball
hip resurfacing alternative to removing head of femur - metal cap over head of femur for smoothness in acetabulum
revision surgery replacement of worn or failed implant
percutaneous diskectomy performed to treat herniated intervertebral disk. Thin tube through skin of back suctions out ruptured disk/ or vaporizes
percutaneous performed through the skin
percutaneous vertebroplasty performed to treat osteoporosis-related compression fractures. Minimally invasive -bone cement injected to stabilize
laminectomy surgical removal of lamina or posterior portion of vertebra
spinal fusion technique to immobilize part of spine by joining together 2 or more vertebrae
fusion to joint together
craniectomy surgical removal of a portion of the skull. Performed to treat craniostenosis or relieve intracranial pressure from brain swell
intracranial pressure amount of pressure inside skull
craniotomy surgical incision or opening into skull, to gain access to brain or relieve pressure
craniplasty surgical repair of the skull
osteoclasis surgical fracture of a bone to correct a deformity
-clasis to break
ostectomy surgical removal of bone
osteorrhaphy surgical suturing, or wiring together, of bones
osteotomy surgical cutting of a bone
periosteotomy incision through the periosteum to bone
closed reduction aka manipulation, attempted realignment of bone involved in fracture or joint dislocation.
open reduction when closed not practical, surgical procedure to realign bone parts
immobilization aka stabilization, act of holding, suturing, or fastening bone in a fixed position w/ strapping or cast
traction pulling force exerted on a limb in a distal direction to return bone/ joint to alignment
external fixation fracture treatment procedure in which pins are placed through soft tissues & bone so an external appliance can hold together
internal fixation aka open reduction internal fixation (ORIF), plate or pins placed directly into bone to hold broken pieces together. Not removed
BDT bone density testing
CR closed reduction
Fx fracture
OA Osteoarthritis
OP osteoporosis
PKR partial knee replacement
PMR polymyalgia rheumatica
RA rheumatoid arthritis
THA total hip arthroplasty
TKA total knee arthroplasty
Created by: kld0519