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Med Term CH2

Med Term CH2 Health and Disease

TermDefinition
aden/o gland
adip/o fat
anter/o before, front
caud/o lower part of body, tail
cephal/o head
cyt/o, -cyte cell
end-, endo- in, within, inside
exo- outside of, outside, away from
hist/o tissue
-ologist specialist
-ology science or study of
path/o, -pathy disease, suffering, feeling, emotion
plas/i, plas/o, -plasia development, growth, formation
poster/o behind, toward the back
-stasis, -static control, maintenance of a constant level
anatomy study of the structures of the body
physiology study of the functions of the structures of hte body
physi nature or physical
anatomic position body standing in standard position: upright and facing forward, arms @ sides w/ palms facing front.
body planes imaginary vertical and horizontal lines used to divide body into sections for descriptive purposes
vertical plane an up-and-down plane that is at a right angle to the horizon. Sagittal, midsagittal, frontal
horizontal plane a flat, crosswise plane, like horizon. Transverse
sagittal plane vertical plane that divides body into unequal L and R portions
midsagittal plane vertical plane, aka midline, divides body into equal L & R halves
frontal plane vertical plane that divides body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions. Aka coronal plane
transverse plane horizontal plane that divides body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions. @ waist or any other level
ventral front, or belly side, of an organ or body - opposite of dorsal
ventr belly side of body
dorsal back of an organ or body - opposite of ventral
cephalic toward head
caudal toward feet
anterior situated in the front or front or forward part of an organ - opposite of posterior
anter front or before
-ior pertaining to
posterior situated in the back or back part of an organ - opposite of anterior
poster back or toward back
superior uppermost, above, or toward the head - opposite of inferior
inferior lowermost, below, or toward feet - opposite of superior
cephal head
caud tail or lower part of body
proximal situated nearest the midline or beginning of a body structure - opposite of distal
distal situated farthest from the midline or beginning of a body structure - opposite of proximal
medial direction toward, or nearer, the midline - opposite of lateral
lateral direction toward, or nearer, the side of the body, away from the midline - opposite of medial
body cavities 2 major spaces w/in body that contain and protect internal organs - dorsal (back) and ventral (front)
dorsal cavity located along back of body and head, contains organs of nervous system that coordinate body functions. 2 portions: Cranial & Spinal
cranial cavity part of dorsal, located w/in skull, surrounds and protects brain.
cranial pertaining to the skull
spinal cavity part of dorsal, located w/in the spinal column, surrounds and protects the spinal cord.
ventral cavity located along the front of the body, contains body organs that sustain homeostatis. 3 portions: thoracic, abdominal, pelvic
homeostasis processes through which the body maintains a constant internal environment
home/o contant
-stasis control
thoracic cavity part of ventral, aka chest cavity or thorax, surrounds and protects the heart and lungs.
diaphragm muscle that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities
abdominal cavity contains major organs of digestion. aka abdomen
pelvic cavity space formed by hip bones and contains the organs of the reproductive and excretory systems
abdominopelvic cavity since no physical division btw the two, sometimes combined
abdomin/o abdomen
pelv pelvis
inguinal relating to the groin - entire lower area of abdomen
groin crease at the junction of the trunk w/ upper end of thigh
regions of thorax and abdomen Divides abdomen & lower thorax into 9 parts. RT & LT hypochondriac regions, epigastric region, RT & LT lumbar regions, umbilical region, RT & LT iliac regions, hypogastric region
RT & LT hypogastric regions covered by lower ribs, below ribs
chondr/i cartilage
epigastric region located above stomach
epi- above
RT & LT lumbar regions located near the inward curve of the spine
lumb lower back
lumbar describes part of back btw ribs and pelvis
umbilical region surrounds umbilicus
umbilicus belly button or navel where umbilical cord was once attached
RT & LT iliac regions located near hip bones
ili hip
hypogastric region located below stomach
quadrant 4 imaginary quadrants of abdomen RUQ, LUQ, RLQ, LLQ
RUQ Right upper quadrant
LUQ Left upper quadrant
RLQ Right lower quadrant
LLQ Left lower quadrant
peritoneum multilayered membrane that protects and holds the organs in place w/in the abdominal cavity
membrane thin layer of tissue that covers a surface, lines a cavity, or divides a space or organ
parietal peritoneum outer layer of the peritoneum that lines the interior of the abdominal wall
parietal cavity wall
mesentery fused double layer of the parietal peritoneum that attaches parts of the intestine to the interior abdominal wall
visceral peritoneum inner layer of the peritoneum that surrounds the organs of the abdominal cavity.
visceral relating to internal organs
retroperitoneal located behind the peritoneum
retro- behind
periton peritoneum
-eal pertaining to
peritonitis inflammation of the peritoneum
cells basic structural and functional units of the body. Specialized and grouped together to form tissues and organs
cytology study of the anatomy, physiology, pathology, and chemistry of the cell
cy cell
cytologist specialist in the study and analysis of cells
cell membrane tissue that surrounds and protects the contents of a cell from the external environments
cytoplasm material w/in a cell membrane that is not part of the nucleus
cyt/o cell
-plasm formative material of cells
nucleus structure w/in a cell that is surrounded by nuclear membrane. Functions: controls activities of cell and helps cell divide
stem cells unspecialized cells that are able to renew themselves for long periods of time by cell division.
adult stem cells aka somatic stem cells: undifferentiated cells found among differentiated cells in a tissue or organ. Maintain/ repair tissue
undifferentiated cells not having specialized function or structure
differentiated cells having a specialized function or structure
hemopoietic blood forming
graft-versus-host disease rejection of a stem cell transplant
embryonic stem cells undifferentiated & unlike any specific adult cell but can for ANY adult cell.
embryonic embryo
embry/o fertilized ovum
-nic pertaining to
gene fundamental physical & functional unit of heredity: control hereditary disorders, hair, skin, and eye color
genetics study of how genes are transferred from parents to children & role in health/ diseases
geneticist specialist in field of genetics
dominant gene inherited from either parent & offspring WILL inherit that condition or characteristic.
recessive gene inherited from both parents, WILL receive. When inherited from one parent, will not receive but will be a carrier.
genome complete set of genetic information of an organism. 99% identical in humans
chromosome genetic structure located w/in nucleus of each cell, made up of DNA molecules containing body's genes. Ea = 100,000 genes
somatic cell any cell in body except gametes (sex cells). 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs. 22 identical, the other XX female or XY male
somatic pertaining to the body in general
gamete sperm or egg, aka sex cell, only type of cell that does not contain 46 chromosomes. 23 each
Down syndrome chromosomes 47 instead of usual 46
DNA basic structure same for all living organisms. Chromosome w/ 2 spiraling strands to form double helix. Deoxyribonucleic Acid that's found in all cells but erythrocytes
erythrocytes are missing nucleus - only cell that does not have this
helix shape twisted like a spiral staircase (DNA)
double helix consists of 2 helix strands twisted together
Same DNA identical twins
genetic mutation change of sequence of a DNA molecule
somatic cell mutation change w/in cells of the body. Affect individual but cannot be transmitted to next generation
gametic cell mutation change w/in genes in gamete that can be transmitted to next generation
genetic engineering manipulating or splicing of genes for scientific or medical purposes.
genetic disorder aka hereditary disorder, pathological condition caused by absent or defective gene. Some @ birth, others manifest
cystic fibrosis (CF) genetic disorder present @ birth & affects respiratory & digestive systems
down syndrome (DS) genetic variation associated w/ certain facial appearance, LD's, delays, and abnormalities
hemophilia group of hereditary bleeding disorders in which blood clotting factor missing
Huntington's disease (HD) genetic disorder passed from parent to child. Nerve degeneration w/ symptoms that appear in midlife.
degeneration worsening condition
muscular dystrophy (MD) group of genetic diseases characterized by progressive weakness & degeneration of skeletal muscles controlling movement
phenylketronuria (PKU) rare genetic disorder which essential digestive enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase is missing. Limit protein
tissue group or layer of similarly specialized cells that join together to perform certain specific functions
histology microscopic study of the structure, composition, and function of tissues
hist tissue
histologist non-physician specialist that studies the microscopic structure of tissues
4 main types of tissues Epithelial, connective, muscle, nerve
epithelial tissue forms protective covering for all internal & external surfaces of body & form glands.
epithelium specialized epithelial tissue that forms epidermis of skin & surface layer of mucous membranes
endothelium specialized epithelial tissue that lines the blood & lymph vessels, body cavities, glands, & organs
connective tissue supports & connects organs & other body tissues. 4 kinds: dense, adipose, loose, liquid
dense connective tissue such as bones and cartilage, form the joints& body framework
adipose tissue A connective tissue, aka fat, provides protective padding, insulation, & support
loose connective tissue surrounds various organs & supports both nerve cells & blood vessels
liquid connective tissue blood and lymph, transport nutrients & waste products throughout body.
muscle tissue contains cells w/ specialized ability to contract & relax
nerve tissue contains cells w/ specialized ability to react to stimuli & to conduct electrical impulses
aplasia defective development, or congenital absence, of an organ or tissue
-plasia formation
hypoplasia the incomplete development of an organ or tissue usually due to a deficiency in the number of cells
anaplasia change in the structure of cells & in their orientation to each other
ana- backward
dysplasia abnormal development or growth of cells, tissues, or organs
hyperplasia enlargement of an organ or tissue b/c of an abnormal increase in the # cells in the tissues
hypertrophy general increase in the bulk of a body part or organ that is due to an increase in the size, but not #, of cells in tissues
-trophy development
gland group of specialized epithelial cells that are capable of producing secretions
secretion the substance produced by a gland
exocrine glands secrete chemical substances into ducts that lead either to other organs or out of the body, such as sweat glands
exo- out of
-crine secrete
endocrine glands produce hormones, do not have ducts. Secreted directly into bloodstream & then transported to organs & other structures
endo- within
adenoids mass of gland-like lymphoid tissue @ back of upper pharynx
aden gland
adenitis inflammation of a gland
adenocarcinoma malignant tumor that originates in glandular tissue
Malignant harmful, capable of spreading, and potentially life threatening
adenoma a benign tumor that arises in or resembles glandular tissue
benign not life threatening
adenomalacia the abnormal softening of a gland
adenosis any disease or condition of a gland.
adenosclerosis the abnormal hardening of a gland
adenectomy surgical removal of a gland
organ independent part of the body that performs a specific function
pathology the study of disease: its nature and cause as well as the produced changes in structure and function
path/o, -pathy disease or suffering, feeling, and emotion
pathologist physician who specializes in laboratory analysis of diseased tissue samples to confirm or establish a diagnosis
skeletal system (major structures/ functions) Bones, joints, cartilage. Supports/ shapes body, protects internal organs, forms some blood cells, stores minerals
Muscular system (major structures/ functions) Muscles, fascia, & tendons. Holds body erect, makes movement possible, moves body fluids & generates body heat.
cardiovascular system (major structures/ functions) heart, arteries, veins, capillaries, & blood. Blood circulates to transport oxygen & nutrients to cells in lymph nodes, waste to kidneys
lymphatic system (major structures/ functions) lymph, lymphatic vessels, & lymph nodes. Removes/ transports waste product from fluid btw cells, destroys pathogens & cancer cells in lymph nodes, returns filtered lymph to bloodstream
immune system (major structures/ functions) tonsils, spleen, thymus, skin, & specialized blood cells. Defends body against invading pathogens & allergens
respiratory system (major structures/ functions) nose, pharynx, trachea, larynx, lungs. Brings oxygen into body for transportation to the cells. Removes carbon dioxide & some water waste from body.
digestive system (major structures/ functions) mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, pancreas. Digests ingested food so it can be absorbed into bloodstream, eliminates solid waste
urinary system (major structures/ functions) kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, & urethra. Filters blood to remove waste. Maintains electrolyte & fluid balance w/in body
nervous system (major structures/ functions) nerves, brain, spinal cord. Coordinates reception of stimuli. Transmits messages throughout body.
special senses (major structures/ functions) eyes & ears. receive visual & auditory info & transmit it to brain
integumentary system (major structures/ functions) skin, sebaceous glands, & sweat glands. Protects body against invasion by bacteria. Aids in regulating body temp & H2O content
endocrine system (major structures/ functions) adrenal glands, gonads, pancreas, parathyroids, pineal, pituitary, thymus, & thyroid. Integrates all body functions
reproductive system (major structures/ functions) male: penis & testicles, female: ovaries, uterus, vagina. Produces new life.
etiology the study of the causes of diseases
pathogen disease-producing microorganism such as a virus
transmission spread of disease
contamination a pathogen is possibly present - from lack of proper hygiene or infection control
communicable disease aka contagious disease. Any condition transmitted from 1 person to another - directly or indirectly
communicable capable of being transmitted.
indirect contact transmission situations in which a susceptible person is infected by contact w/ a contaminated surface.
bloodborne transmission spread of disease through contact w/ infected blood or other body fluids contaminated w/ infected blood. HIV, STDs
droplet transmission spread of diseases such as measles, cold, & flu through large respiratory droplets sprayed by coughing/sneezing. Lands on person or thing. Primary: nosocomial infections
airborne transmission contact w/ germs floating in air. airborne coughs or sneezes. Tuberculosis
nosocomial infections hospital acquired infections like MRSA
food-borne & waterborne transmission aka fecal-oral transmission. caused by eating or drinking contaminated food or water that not properly treated
vector-borne transmission spread of certain disease due to bite of a vector (flies, mites, fleas, ticks, rats, dogs. Mosquitoes most common.
epidemiologist specialist in the study of outbreaks of disease w/in population group.
epi- above
dem/i population
endemic ongoing presence of a disease w/in a population, group. or area. Ex common cold
dem population
epidemic sudden & widespread outbreak of disease w/in a specific population group or area. Ex measles
pandemic outbreak of disease occurring over LG geographic area, possibly worldwide. AIDS
functional disorder produces symptoms for which no physiological or anatomical cause can be identified. Ex panic attack
iatrogenic illness illness w/out known cause
idi/o peculiar to the individual
idiopathic w/out known cause
infectious disease illness caused by living pathogenic organisms such as bacteria & viruses
MRSA Staphylococcus aureus infections often spread in hospitals
organic disorder produces symptoms caused by detectable physical changes in body.
congenital disorder abnormal condition that exists at time of birth. developmental before birth, prenatal influences, premature birth, or injuries during birth process
congenital existing at birth
atresia describes the congenital absence of a normal body opening or the failure of a structure to be tubular
anomaly deviation from what is regarded as normal
anal atresia congenital absence of the opening at the bottom end of anus
prenatal influences mother's health, behavior, prenatal care
rubella infection birth defects common if contracted early in pregnancy
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) caused by mother's consumption of alcohol during pregnancy
premature birth birth that occurs earlier than 37 weeks of development
birth injuries congenital disorders that were not present before the events surrounding the time of birth
cerebral palsy result of brain damage, caused by premature birth or inadequate oxygen to brain during birth process
geriatrics study of medical problems & care of older people
autopsy postmortem examination
allied health professionals roles outside of medicine, nursing, & pharmacy. Dental techs, interpreters, nutritionists, PT's, mental health, phlebotomists
general practitioner (GP) can be PCP, aka family practice. Provides ongoing care for patients of all ages
internist physician who specializes in diagnosing & treating diseases & disorders of internal organs & related body systems
pediatrician physician who specializes in diagnosing, treating, & preventing disorders & diseases of infants & children.
geriatrician aka gerontologist, physician who specializes in care of older ppl
nurse practitioner (NP) nurse w/ graduate training who often works w/ primary care provider
physician assistant (PA) licensed pro who works under supervision of physician. Usually master's degree
medical receptionist schedules/ registers patients
medical assistant aka clinical medical assistant. Performs admin & clinical tasks in Dr's office.
certified medical assistant CMA
medical coder reviews patients' med records & assigns appropriate codes for treatment & services
emergency room (ER) focuses on diagnosing & treating life-threatening emergency med conditions. Patients triaged on arrival
emergency physician Dr who specializes in high-acuity med in ET
acuity level of severity of an illness
emergency medical technician (EMT) licensed health care pro who works in pre-hospital setting on ambulance or in ER
registered nurse (RN) licensed health care pro who works in variety of settings
licensed vocational nurse (LPN) aka LVN. works under basic supervision of Dr or RN to provide basic patient care.
certified nursing assistant (CNA) works under supervision of RN to provide basic patient care
intensive care unit (ICU) aka critical care unit. provides continuously monitored care for critically ill patients.
intensivist physician specializing in care of critically ill patients hospitalized in ICU
hospitalist physician focusing on general medical care of hospitalized patients
telemetry unit provides continuous cardiac monitoring for patients w/ heart problems
tele distant
-metry measure
medical/surgical unit provides nursing care for lower-acuity patients recovering from surgery or needing continued care
A&P Anatomy & Physiology
CD communicable disease
CH, Chr chromosome
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
epid epidemic
GP general practitioner
HD Huntington's disease
LLQ Left lower quadrant
LUQ Left upper quadrant
PA Physician assistant
RLQ Right lower quadrant
RUQ Right upper quadrant
Created by: kld0519