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Chapt.8 Key Terms

Cardiovascular System & Abbreviations

aneurysm an excessive localized enlargement of an artery caused by a weakening of the artery wall.
angioplasty surgical repair or unblocking of a blood vessel, especially a coronary artery.
angioscopy visualizing the interior of blood vessels.
anomaly something that deviates from what is standard, normal, or expected.
aortic valve the human heart between the left ventricle and the aorta.
arteries any of the muscular-walled tubes forming part of the circulation system by which blood is conveyed from the heart to all parts of the body.
atria an irregular and often very fast heart rate.
atrioventricular node (AV node) which controls the heart rate, is one of the major elements in the cardiac conduction system.
bundle of His cardiac muscle fibers that conducts the electrical impulses that regulate the heartbeat.
cardiac pacemaker a small device that's placed in the chest or abdomen to help control abnormal heart rhythms.
cardiovascular system another term for circulatory system.
central venous access device (CVA device) broad term that includes many types of catheters (thin, flexible hollow tubes) that are inserted into and positioned within a vein in the body
complete replacement Based on the origins of modern humans in africa, and later replacement of populations in europe and asia
coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG) a type of surgery that improves blood flow to the heart.
dual-chamber system pacemaker with pacing electrodes in both the right atrium and the right ventricle, which helps maintain the physiological relationship between atrial and ventricular
electrodes a conductor through which electricity enters or leaves an object, substance, or region.
endarterectomy surgical removal of the inner layer of an artery when thickened and atheromatous or occluded (as by intimal plaques)
endocardium the thin, smooth membrane that lines the inside of the chambers of the heart and forms the surface of the valves.
epicardium a serous membrane that forms the innermost layer of the pericardium and the outer surface of the heart.
heart a hollow muscular organ that pumps the blood through the circulatory system by rhythmic contraction and dilation. In vertebrates there may be up to four chambers
insertion the action of inserting something.
ligation the surgical procedure of closing off a blood vessel or other duct or tube in the body by means of a ligature or clip.
mitral valve the valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle of the heart, consisting of two tapered cusps.
myocardium the muscular tissue of the heart.
non selective placement to a catheter that remains in the accessed vessel or that has made it into the aorta
pacing cardioverter-defibrillator automated implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD) is a device implantable inside the body
parietal pericardium the tough thickened membranous outer layer of the pericardium that is attached to the central part of the diaphragm and the posterior part of the sternum
partial replacement partial knee replacement is surgery to replace only one part of a damaged knee
percutaneous ventricular assist device (pVAD) a small mechanical pump that gives short-term support for the heart from a few hours up to 15 days
pericardial fluid consists of two layers, an outer fibrous layer and the inner serous layer.
pericardial sac conical sac of fibrous tissue which surrounds the heart and the roots of the great blood vessels
pericardiocentesis the removal by needle of pericardial fluid from the sac surrounding the heart for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
pericardium the membrane enclosing the heart, consisting of an outer fibrous layer and an inner double layer of serous membrane.
pulmonary valve allow blood to leave the heart via the arteries. It is a one-way valve, meaning that blood cannot flow back into the heart through it.
pulse generator is either an electronic circuit or a piece of electronic test equipment used to generate rectangular pulses.
removal the action of taking away or abolishing something unwanted.
repair to fix
selective placement ho helps management recruit, hire and accommodate people with disabilities.
serous pericardium which is intimately attached to the heart and roots of the great vessels.
single-chamber system the space between the layers is the pericardial cavity.
sinoatrial node (SA node) a small body of specialized muscle tissue in the wall of the right atrium of the heart that acts as a pacemaker by producing a contractile signal at regular intervals.
thromboendarterectomy an operation that removes organized clotted blood (thrombus) from the pulmonary arteries.
tricuspid valve a valve that is situated at the opening of the right atrium of the heart into the right ventricle and that resembles the mitral valve
tube pericardiostomy an operation in which the pericardium is opened and the fluid within drained via a tube
veins any of the tubes forming part of the blood circulation system of the body, carrying in most cases oxygen-depleted blood toward the heart.
venous access device small, flexible tubes placed in large veins for people who require frequent access to the bloodstream
ventricles a hollow part or cavity in an organ, in particular.
vessels a tube or canal
visceral pericardium ayers is the pericardial cavity. visceral pericardium the inner layer of the serous pericardium, which is in contact with the heart and roots
Abbreviations Definitions
AED automated external defibrillator
A-fib atrial fibrillation
AICD automated implantable cardioverter-defibrillator
AS aortic stenosis
ASD atrial septal defect
ASHD arteriosclerotic heart disease
BBB bundle-branch block
CABG coronary artery bypass graft
CAD coronary artery disease
CC cardiac catheterization
CCU coronary care unit
CHD coronary heart disease
CHF congestive heart failure
DVT deep vein thrombosis
EKG electrocardiogram
HTN hypertension
MI myocardial infarction
MVP mitral valve prolapse
PAD peripheral artery disease
pVAD percutaneous ventricular assist device
PVD peripheral vascular disease
Created by: K.Lindsey
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