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CNS Takes all nerves messages to Brain & spinal cord to process Stores sensory and motor information
Brain Controls systems of the body Except heart
Functions of nerves system Regulates / coordinates All body activity
Nervous system Center of all mental activity Including thought and memory
Peripheral nervous system ( PNS) 12 pairs cranial 31 pairs spinal Transports sensory and motor impulses to and from the (CNS) and rest of body
Peripheral Relays messages on the sides
PNS afferent Sensory taking impulses from body to brain Via CNS
PSN efferent Motor. Taking messages from the Brain to the body for movement Carey's impulses from the CNS to muscles and glands
Somatic nervous system SNS Provides voluntary control over skeletal muscles contraction
Autonomic nervous system ANS Can not control Provides involuntary control over smooth muscle Cardiac muscle Glandular activity
Sympathetic nerves ANS Fight or flight Responses include constriction of blood vessels Increased blood pressure Increased heart rate
Parasympathetic nerves ANS Returns body to restful state Decrease in heart rate increased peristalsis Increased. Glandular secretions Relaxation of sphincter
Neurons Functional unit of nerve cell
Neurons. 3 parts
Synapse Space between two nerves Contains neurotransmitters for activation or inhibition of nerve impulse
Neuroglia Connective tissue Are not conducting impulse there for support
Phagocytosis Protect nervous system eats up bacteria
3 types of Neuroglia cells Astrocytes Microglia Oligodendrocytes
Meninges/ cerebrospinal fluid Membranes that cover the brain/ spinal cord
Dura mater Outtermost Layer of meninges Tough white connective tissue
Dura mater epidural space Located outside of the dura mater Contains supporting cushions of fat and connective tissue
Dura mater. Subdural space Located beneath the dura mater Cavity is located with serous fluid
Arachnoid membrane Middle layer of meninges Resembles a spiders web Subarachnoid space immediately beneath contains cerebrospinal fluid
Pia mater Inner most layer of meninges Tightly bound to the surface of the brain and spinal cord
Cerebrum Largest and uppermost portion of the brain Controls consciousness memory sensations emotions voluntary movement
Cortex Outter layer of the cerebrum
Longitudinal fissure Divides cerebrum into two hemispheres
Cerebellum Back of brain attaches to brain stem Maintains muscle tone coordinates normal movement and balance Looks like a leafy structure
Pineal gland Secretes melatonin
Hypothalamus Controls temperature Sleep. Appetite
Thdmus Controls sensory stimuli
Diencephalon Located between the cerebrum and midbrain Consists of thalamus. Hypothalamus and pineal gland
Pons Bridge nerves cross over each other at the pons
Brain stem Between Diencephalon and spinal cord Consists of midbrain. Pons and medulla oblongata Pathways for impulses between brain and spinal cord Controls. Respiration blood pressure and heart rate
Alzheimer's Memory loss debilitating deterioration of intellectual function
Anencephaly Absence of the brain and spinal cord at birth Child dies
Bell's palsy Facial nerve could be temporary ( viral) Or stroke drooping one side of face
Brain abscess Accumulation of pus anywhere in the brain Sinus infection can lead to brain abscess Can be drained
Carpal tunnel syndrome Wrist
Cerebral concussion Short term memory loss Blunt trauma to head
Cerebral contusion Shaking of a baby
Cerebral palsy Congenital brain damage Childs lack of control of muscles
Cerebral palsy spastic Damage to the cortex of the brain
Cerebral palsy. Ataxic Damage to the cerebellum Affects equilibrium
Cerebral palsy athetoid Damage to basal ganglia Causes sudden jerking
Cerebral palsy rigidity Causes child to be in a continual state of tension
Cerebral palsy mixed Combination of all three types
Cerebrovascular accident Ischemia death of specific portion of the brain Loss of blood supply to certain area Infarction cell dead
TIAs Transient ischemic attacks Clot not attached
Cerebral thrombosis Attached clot Older then 50
Cerebral hemorrhage Stroke Central vessel ruptures
Encephalitis Inflammation of the brain
Epilepsy Recrurring episodes of electrical activity of the CNS
Grand mal Aura generalized body seizures Seize then relax
Petit mal Small seizures suddenly Also known as absence seizures
Epidural hematoma Arterial bleeding above the dura mater just below the skull
Subdural hematoma Blood below the dura mater and above the arachnoid meninges
Intracranial tumors Any region of the brain
Multiple sclerosis Optic nerve damage No cure
Narcolepsy Fall asleep with out knowing
Neuroblastoma Highly malignant fast growing
Spina bifida cystica
Created by: Tbella