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body defense

test 2

2 types of defenses nonspecific and specific
homeostasis protects body against foreign organisms, toxins, chemicals, damaged cells and tissues
nonspecific body defenses (first line) epithelial barriers; phagocytes; antimicrobial chemicals
nonspecific body defenses (second line) fever; inflammation
epithelial barriers skin; cornea; mucous membranes
phagocytes macrophages; neutrophils; eosinophils
antimicrobial chemicals acids; lysozymes; complement; interferons
acids stomach, vagina, urethra
lysozyme polysaccharide; binds to and destroys bacterial cell walls
complement proteins; bind to bacteria and parasites, directly lyse them, mark them for phagocytes
interferons proteins; prevent viruses from infecting cells and mark virus-infected cells for phagocytes
fever purposely raising body temp since some bacteria cannot reproduce at high temps; some bacteria causes body temps to raise to dangerous levels though
inflammation inflammatory chemicals from damaged tissues; vasodilation, pain increase capillary permeability
increased capillary permeability swelling, increased oxygen, attraction of leukocytes
4 things specific defenses must be specifc, adaptive, systematic, memory
specific provides defense against antigens recognized as non-self
adaptive defense can be targeted against new antigens
systematic defenses are distributed through entire body, not limited to site of infection
memory mounts stronger and faster defense against previously encountered antigens
self-tolerance immune system must not respond and attack to the body's own cells and molecules
pathogen any organism against which the immune system responds
antigen any molecule against which the immune system responds; may be isolated molecule; may be a larger structure
antibody (immunoglobin) a specific protein which binds to an antigen; produced by lymphocytes
antigenic determinant or epitope the specific part of an antigen which an antibody recognizes and binds to
cell-mediated immunity macrophages and t lymphocytes; lymphocytes directly attack invading or damaged cells; effective against invading cells or damaged cells; begins when macrophage presents anigen to immunocompetent T lymphocytes
humoral immunity antibodies produced by plasma cells (b-lymphocytes with some help from t-lymphocytes); antibodies attach to invading cells or isolated antigens
macrophages engulf and destroy pathogens, damaged cells, present antigens to lymphocytes, secrete activation factors
B lymphocytes plasma cells and memory cells
T lymphocytes cytotoxic cells; helper cells; regulatory/suppressor cells; memory cells
Antigen presenting cells reticular cells; dendritic cells
T lymphocytes become immunocompetent in thymus; responsible for cell-mediated immunity
B-lymphocytes become immunocompetent in bone marrow and regions of digestive system; responsible for humoral immunity
humoral immune response effective against both isolated antigens and cells; begins when immunocompetent B lymphocyte recognizes and binds to a specific antigen, becoming activated
3 actions of antibodies 1) neutralize the anitgen by changing its shape 2) cause antigens or pathogen to agglutinate or precipitate 3) mark the antigen or pathogen to by phagocytosed
cytotoxic T lymphocytes when activated, it binds to target cell and releases molecules which directly damage it
helper T lymphocytes when activated, it secrete chemicals which acivate macrophages and stimulate proliferation of both B and cytotoxic T lymphocytes
regulatoy/suppressor T lymphocytes secrete chemicals which suppress the activates of both T and B lymphotcytes; necessary to slow down immune response after antigen or invading.damaged cell destroyed; minimizes risk of cross-relativity and damage to self cells; help make memory cells
Created by: shill14