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Learning Tool #1 SNJ

Respiration and Exercise physiology. Learning Group 10

Infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS) is caused by? Lack of surfactant production and structural immaturity, resulting in the lungs not staying inflated.
What are some treatments for IRDS? Synthetic surfactants, use of a ventilator
Asthma is caused by? Bronchiole constriction due to smooth muscle contraction (inflammation)
What happens to flow when there is a 3x reduction in radius? 81x reduction in flow
Given a respiration rate of 10 breaths/min, tidal volume of 500 mL/breath, and dead space of 200 mL, what is the alveolar ventilation rate (AVR)? 3,000 mL/minute (Respiratory Rate *(Tidal Volume – Dead Space) = 10 breaths/minute * (500mL/breath –200mL/breath) = 3000 mL/minute
Obstructive pulmonary diseases are caused by? Increased resistance to flow (e.g. asthma)
Restrictive pulmonary diseases are caused by? A smaller total change in volume (due to something mechanical or structural restricting the contracting/expanding of the lungs) (e.g. IRDS)
What is Dalton’s Law? The partial pressure of each gas is directly proportional to its percentage in the mixture
What type of cells are the lung alveoli composed of to maximize diffusive gas exchange? Simple squamous epithelium
What type of hypoxia is caused by an insufficient supply of RBCs? Anemic hypoxia
What are 3 forms in which carbon dioxide is transported in the blood? Dissolved in plasma, chemically bound to hemoglobin, bicarbonate ion in plasma
What is the name of the effect by which oxygenation of blood is likely to further increase the dissociation of carbon dioxide from hemoglobin? Haldane Effect
What is the buffer system that resists blood pH changes? The carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system
Describe the relationship between respiration rate and blood pH. Rapid, deep breathing leads to lower levels of CO2 in the blood, which causes the blood pH to increase. Slow, shallow breathing leads to higher levels of CO2, which causes the blood pH to decrease.
Name a function of the aortic and carotid bodies. Sense oxygen and hydrogen ion levels in the blood.
How is the pathway controlled by arterial PCO2 different from that controlled by the production of non-CO2 acids? Arterial PCO2 also impacts the [H+] in extracellular brain fluid, triggering central chemoreceptors to fire. Like the production of non-CO2 acid, arterial PCO2 also impacts the arterial [H+], impacting respiration rates via peripheral chemoreceptors.
Name the disease that is characterized by the following: -Chronic bronchitis and obstructive emphysema -History of smoking, dyspnea, coughing and frequent pulmonary infections Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
Which molecule, O2 or CO2, primarily controls respiration rate (measured using minute ventilation)? CO2 primarily controls respiration rate as an increase in CO2 increases the blood [H+]. If the arterial [H+] increases, the peripheral chemoreceptors fire, triggering contractions in the respiratory muscles, increasing ventilation.
What causes the airway inflammation in asthma? An immune response caused by IL-4 and IL-5, which leads to the recruitment of inflammatory cells by stimulating IgE antibodies.
Why is there such a high risk for antibiotic-resistant TB? The bacteria that causes TB requires a 12 month treatment cycle. 12 months is a long time, so the likelihood of patients consistently taking the antibiotic is lower, increasing the risk of TB bacteria developing antibiotic-resistance.
What are the muscles activated in inspiration? -scalenes -pectoralis minor -erector spinae (straighten spine = enlarge thoracic cavity) -sternocleido mastoid -diaphragm
What are the muscles activated in expiration? -obliques -transverse + rectus abdominus (decrease size of rib cage) -diaphragm
How long is the delay before ATP can be supplied via aerobic metabolism (i.e. oxidative phosphorylation)? 1-2 minutes
What is the role of PCr in energy storage? PCr, stored in muscle, is able to donate a phosphate group in order to phosphorylate ADP to ATP
What is oxygen deficit? Oxygen deficit reflects the initial anaerobic supply of ATP during exercise and the depletion of ATP & PCr
What is oxygen debt? Oxygen debt reflects elevated VO2 (post exercise): i.e. the metabolic demand has decreased but the metabolic rate is still increased. This replenishes the depleted ATP & PCr supplies and metabolizes anaerobic end products to re-establish resting state.
If a study subject has an RQ of 0.75 but is NOT in starvation mode, how much of their metabolism is being supplied by each fuel source? x*0.7 + (1-x)*1 = 0.75 0.3x=0.25 x=5/6 (where x is the fraction of fat) 1/6 from carbs 5/6 from fats
What is physiologically happening when a marathon runner “hits the wall”? (often around mile 20) Stored muscle glycogen has been depleted, so the runner’s body must shift to utilizing lipid oxidation. This takes longer so the ATP demand is not being met, despite adequate oxygen levels.
What is one issue with the experiment that was performed with a dog, bird, and fish to compare the energy expended in transport across the different modes of transport (swimming, running, flying)? The animals did not all have similar metabolic needs (ex. Regulation of body temperature at a constant temperature for mammals v. maintenance at environmental temperatures)
What does the comparison of different costs of transport (swimming, flying, running) among mammals demonstrate? The total cost of transport is similar across the different modes of transport, and the efficiency increases as the body mass of the animal increases.
True or False: Aerobic capacity in humans has a strong hereditary factor. True – in humans, the VO2 capacity has been found to be about 93% hereditary based.
What is the relationship between size and the net transport cost? The net transport cost for any given speed is lower for a larger person than a smaller person – the efficiency is higher.
What is the relationship between size and metabolic rate? As the mass of the animal increases, the metabolic rate also increases.
Why is it important that the alveolar diffusion distance does not significantly increase as the body mass of the animal increases? If the diffusion distance were to significantly increase, the animal would have a harder time oxygenating their blood (and therefore delivering sufficient oxygen to tissues) since the diffusion distance is closely tied to the diffusion rate.
Why is it important that the alveolar surface area significantly increases as the body mass of the animal increases? Animals with a larger body mass have a higher oxygen need. In order for them to be able to keep up with that need, a higher surface area is important to increase the amount of oxygen that will diffuse into the blood supply.
When considering scaling (for example, for drug doses), what are some potential scaling measures that could be considered? Relative body weight to a different animal, relative body weight to a different animal, relative metabolic rate, relative target organ size (for animals in which the appropriate dosage is known)
What type of lung cancer arises in the bronchial epithelium? Squamous cell carcinoma
What type of lung cancer arises in the peripheral lung epithelium? Adenocarcinoma
What are the five steps of gas exchange? 1. Ventilation, 2. Pulmonary gas exchange, 3. Gas transport, 4. Cellular gas exchange, 5. Cellular respiration
What type of epithelial cells are in the trachea? Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
What are the branches of the respiratory system in the conducting zone? Trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles
What are the branches of the respiratory system in the respiratory zone? Respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs
How much combined surface area do the alveolar sacs have? Approximately half a tennis court
How many lobes do the right and left lungs have? 3 in the right, 2 in the left
What is the purpose of Type II cells in the respiratory membrane? They secrete surfactant, reducing surface tension so that gas exchange can occur.
What is a pneumothorax? A pneumothorax is also known as a collapsed lung. It occurs when air leaks into the space between the lungs and chest wall, pushing on the walls of the lung and causing it to collapse.
What is emphysema? A disease that limits ventilation due to over-inflation of the alveoli. Air sacs in lungs are broken down by exposure to toxins or particulate matter, leading to increased lung compliance.
What is Pulmonary Fibrosis? A disease that limits ventilation due to scar tissue causing lungs to be less elastic.
Of the physiological effects affected by short-term exercise, which effects increase? Heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, blood flow, blood pressure
When the blood flow rate increases during exercise, what organ experiences an increase in blood flow rate but a percentage decrease (relative to the total blood flow in the body)? Brain
In what parts of your body does blood flow increase the most during exercise? Skeletal muscle and skin
What organ’s percentage of blood flow does not change? Heart
What are the long term adaptations of exercise on: heart size, resting heart rate, stroke volume, blood flow and volume, and blood pressure? Everything increases except resting heart rate and blood pressure, which decrease
What happens to blood flow through each capillary when the number of capillaries increases? Blood flow through each capillary decreases as capillaries increase in area. There are more branches, so the blood flow through each slows down.
What happens to the left ventricle of the heart in endurance athletes? It increases in size.
What happens when arterioles in the muscles dilate? Blood flow to the muscles increases.
Put the following animals in correct order of increasing aerobic capacity: human, cat, horse. Cat (4) < Human (12-20) < Horse (30)
If an individual has a resting metabolic rate of 120 ml/min and their VO2max is measured to be 2250 ml/min, what is their aerobic scope? 18.75 Aerobic scope = (VO2max) / (resting metabolic rate) = (2250 ml/min) / (120 ml/min) = 18.75
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