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Blood components

Blood components and functions

QuestionAnswer
What is blood classified as and what does it consist of? Blood is classified as a connective tissue and it consists of two main components
What components does blood consist of? Plasma and formed elements
What is plasma? Plasma is a clear extracellular fluid
What are formed elements made up of? Platelets and blood cells
Why are formed elements so called? So named because they are enclosed in a plasma membrane and have a definite structure and shape
What are platelets? tiny fragments of bone marrow cells
Which three things are classed as formed elements? 1. Erythrocytes, aka RBCs 2. Leukocytes, aka WBCs 3. Platelets
Give two types of WBCs Granulocytes and Agranulocytes
Name the types of granulocytes Neutrophils Eosinophils Basophils
Name the types of agranulocytes Lymphocytes Monocytes
What are granulocytes? cells with prominent granules and a multilobed nuclei
What are agranulocytes? nongranular cytoplasm with non lobed nucleus
What type of WBC is a neutrophil and what is it's function? Granulocyte, Phagocytosis of pathogenic microorganisms (innate immune system)
What type of WBC is a basophil and what is it's function? Granulocyte, Capable of ingesting foreign particles. Secretes heparin, serotonin and histamine which intensifies the inflammatory response
What type of WBC is an eosinophil and what is it's function? Can ingest foreign particles, secrete "major basic protein" which is involved in the defence against certain parasitic worms
What type of WBC is a lymphocyte and what is it's function? Agranulocyte, Subdivided into B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes B lymphocytes produce circulation antibodies T lymphocytes produce long term immunity and are capable of destroying cells infected with a particular antigen
What type of WBC is a monocyte and what is it's function? Agranulocyte, Migrate out of blood to form macrophages - phagocytic cells which engulf bacteria and all debris
List three functions of blood Protection, Inflammation and Regulation
Describe the role of blood for protection • Blood has the ability to clot; this protects the body from excessive blood loss • WBCs in the blood help to fight infection by producing antibodies and the phagocytosis of bacteria
Describe the role of blood in inflammation • Leukocytes, or WBCs, destroy invading microorganisms and cancer cells • Antibodies and other proteins destroy pathogenic substances • Platelet factors initiate blood clotting and help minimise blood loss
Describe the role of blood in regulation Blood helps regulate body temperature as the plasma can absorb heat and then be lost to the environment as the blood flows closer to the skins surface
Describe the role of blood in regulation • Blood also regulates pH in the body by acting via buffers • The osmotic pressure of blood also allows the water content of cells to be maintained
What is plasma a mixture of? Plasma is a mixture of proteins, enzymes, nutrients, wastes, hormones and gases
What do plasma proteins serve as? Plasma proteins serve as carriers for other molecules
What is the most abundant substance in plasma? Proteins are the most abundant substance in plasma by weight
How long do platelets live? 5-9 days
What do platelets contain? They contain many granules but no nucleus
What do platelets promote and how? Vascular spasm and blood clotting by releasing the chemicals ADP, serotonin and thromboxane A2
List the components of plasma Water, Albumins (proteins), Globulins (protein), Electrolytes, Nutrients, Gases, Wastes, Fibrinogen (protein)
What is fibrinogen produced by and what is it essential in? Liver, clotting
What is transported in the plasma? Enzymes and hormones
What do albumins act as? A transport protein for many steroid hormones and fatty acids
neutrophils phagocytosis
basophils can ingest foreign particles
eosinophil secretes 'major basic protein' and ingests foreign particles
Created by: Aimee76
 

 



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