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Integumentary (Skin)

QuestionAnswer
Integumentary System The skin and it's accessory structures (derivatives)
Integument Means the same as "skin"; Largest organ in the body (7-8% total weight of the body). Two Layers: Epidermis and Dermis
Epidermis Most superficial layer; Comprised solely of Keratinized Stratified Squamous Epithelium (keratin is a water-insoluble protein); Is Avascular; Consists of 4-5 layers (strata) of distinct cell types; Up to hundreds of cells thick.
Dermis Between epidermis and hypodermis; Mainly comprised of CT (primarily collagen fibers) but does contain blood vessels, glands, hair follicles, nail roots, sensory nerve endings and smooth muscle; Divided into two layers (Papillary layer and Reticular layer)
Hypodermis (subcutaneous layer) AKA hypodermis or superficial fascia; Deep to, but not considered part of, the integument; Consists of areolar and adipose connective tissue; Acts as protection of underlying structures, a store of energy and thermal insulation
Integument Function Protection (physical and chemical); Prevention of dehydration; Temperature regulation (sweating and vasodilation/constriction); Metabolic regulation (Vit. D); Immune defense (Dendritic cells); Sensory reception; Excretion/Secretion
Epidermis Strata Layers (from most superficial to deepest) Stratum Corneum; Stratum Lucidum (found only in thick skin); Stratum Granulosum; Stratum Spinosum; Stratum Basale
Stratum Corneum Most superficial layer of epidermis; Thickness varies from a few to 30 layers thick depending on location on the body; Anucleate (a "everything" but keratin for that matter); Comprised solely of dead keratinocytes to be sloughed off by abrasion of skin.
Stratum Lucidum Thin, translucent region, 2-3 layers thick; Sole of feet and palms of hands (calluses); Cells devoid of organelles but filled with ELEIDIN which is a transparent, intermediate product of keratin maturation.
Stratum Granulosum AKA Granular layer; 3-5 layers of keratinocytes; As they migrate from blood supply organelles begin to degrade and cytoplasm fills with concentrated keratin;Fully ketatinized cells are dead but strong and highly water-insoluble.
Stratum Spinosum AKA Spiny layer; Several layers thick; 2 types of cells (Keratinocytes and Epidermal dendritic)
Integumentary System The skin and it's accessory structures (derivatives)
Integument Means the same as "skin"; Largest organ in the body (7-8% total weight of the body). Two Layers: Epidermis and Dermis
Epidermis Most superficial layer; Comprised solely of Keratinized Stratified Squamous Epithelium (keratin is a water-insoluble protein); Is Avascular; Consists of 4-5 layers (strata) of distinct cell types; Up to hundreds of cells thick.
Dermis Deeper layer of dense irregular connective tissue
Hypodermis (subcutaneous layer) A third layer (not considered part of the integument) lies deep to the dermis. Consists mostly of adipose connective tissue.
Integument Function Protection (physical and chemical); Prevention of dehydration; Temperature regulation (sweating and vasodilation/constriction); Metabolic regulation (Vit. D); Immune defense (Dendritic cells); Sensory reception; Excretion/Secretion
Epidermis Strata Layers (from most superficial to deepest) Stratum Corneum; Stratum Lucidum (found only in thick skin); Stratum Granulosum; Stratum Spinosum; Stratum Basale
Stratum Corneum Most superficial layer of epidermis; Thickness varies from a few to 30 layers thick depending on location on the body; Anucleate (a "everything" but keratin for that matter); Comprised solely of dead keratinocytes to be sloughed off by abrasion of skin.
Stratum Lucidum Thin, translucent region, 2-3 layers thick; Sole of feet and palms of hands (calluses); Cells devoid of organelles but filled with ELEIDIN which is a transparent, intermediate product of keratin maturation.
Stratum Granulosum AKA Granular layer; 3-5 layers of keratinocytes; As they migrate from blood supply organelles begin to degrade and cytoplasm fills with concentrated keratin;Fully ketatinized cells are dead but strong and highly water-insoluble.
Stratum Spinosum AKA Spiny layer; Several layers thick; 2 types of cells (Keratinocytes and Epidermal dendritic)
Keratinocytes (Stratum Spinosum) Differentiated daughter cells from the Stratum Basale; Non-dividing (may see a rare mitotic cell); Attach to each other with desmosomes.
Epidermal Dendritic Phagocytitic and engulf invading pathogens
Stratum Basale The only layer that is mitotically active;Single layer of cuboid cells directly adjacent to the dermis. 3 cell types (Keratinocytes, Melanocytes, Tactile Cells)
Keratinocytes (Stratum Basale) Most abundant; Produce keratina water-insoluble protein that is strong and prevents the skin from dissolving in an aqueous environment
Melanocytes (Stratum Basale) Have long branching cytoplasmic processes that are distributed throughout this cell layer; Produce melanosomes; Absorbs energy from the UV light thus preventing damage to DNA of cells in this layer, possibly preventing a form of skin cancer
Melanosomes Black/brown pigment produced by the melanocytes of the Stratum Basale
Tactile Cells (Stratum Basale) Sensitive to touch and contained in the Basement Membrane of the Stratum Basale
Papillary Layer of the Dermis Superficial layer; Directly adjacent to stratum basale; Dermal papillae & epidermal ridges interlock to increase surface area exposure between the epidermis and dermis; Dermal papillae contain capillaries that supply nutrients to avascular epidermal cells
Reticular Layer The majority and deepest of the dermis; Mainly dense irregular connective tissue, blood vessels, glands, hair follicles and nerves; Collagen bundles help connect dermis to underlying hypodermis
Lines of Cleavage Determined by orientation of collagen bundles; Important to know for surgical procedures since incisions made at right angles to these lines of cleavage will heal very slowly
Innervation Nerve fibers dispersed throughout the dermis; Nerves function as tactile (touch) receptors, control blood flow and glandular secretion
Blood Supply Unlike the avascular epidermis, the dermis contains blood vessels; These blood vessels have important role in controlling body temperature (Vasoconstriction and Vasodilation)
Vasoconstriction Narrowing of blood vessels thus preserving core body heat
Vasodilation Widening of blood vessels thus loosing body heat and lowering body temperature
Epidermal Derivatives Nails, Hair, Sweat and Sebaceous Glands
Nail Matrix Actively growing part of the nail
Lunula Whitish semilunar proximal area of the nail body; White because the thickened underlying stratum basale obscures the capillary bed
Hair Keratinized cells growing from a hair follicle that extends deep into the dermis or hypodermis; Three zones along the length of a hair (Hair bulb, Hair root, Hair shaft)
Hair Bulb A swelling at the dermal base
Hair Matrix Dividing epithelial cells that generate daughter cells resulting in growth or lengthening of the hair
Hair Papilla Consists of a small amount of connective tissue, nerves and blood vessels that support the dividing epithelial cells within the hair matrix
Arrector Pili Muscle Attached to the hair shaft; Involuntary smooth muscle; Responds to emotional states such as fear or rage or exposure to cold temperatures; “goose bumps”
Function of Hair Protection; Heat Retention; Facial Expression; Sensory Reception; Visual Identification; Criminal Signal Dispersal
Integumentary Exocrine Glands Sweat (sudoriferous) glands; Sebaceous glands; Ceruminous; Mammary
Sweat (sudoriferous) Glands Produce a watery solution
Sebaceous Glands Produce an oily secretion that coats hair shafts and the surface of the epidermis
Ceruminous External ear
Mammary Breasts
Two Types of Sweat Glands Merocrine sweat glands; Apocrine sweat glands
Sweat Duct Carries sweat to pore
Merocrine Sweat Gland Simple coiled tubular glands; release secretion directly onto surface of skin (pore is the opening); Most numerous; Found mostly on palms of hands, soles of feet and forehead; Secretion is under nervous system control; Secretion is clear and is 99% H2O
Function of Merocrine Sweat Gland Thermoregulation; Excretion; Protection
Apocrine Sweat Gland Simple coiled tubular glands that release their secretion into the hair follicles at the armpits (axillae), around the nipple (areola), in the groin (pubic) and anus (anal); Secretion is viscous, cloudy and composed of proteins and lipidsBacterial bypro
Sebaceous Gland Secrete an oily or waxy substance (sebum) usually into hair follicles; Sebum is thought to keep hair and skin from becoming dry, brittle and cracked; Secretions increase at puberty
Ceruminous Gland Secrete cerumin (Earwax)
Mammary Gland Modified apocrine glands; Present in both males and females; Secrete milk
Created by: Tlmk