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Muscle Contraction

Glossary - Muscle Contraction

Acetylcholine a chemical released from certain nerve endings, especially those innervating skeletal muscles
Action Potential a rapid change in electrical activity across a nerve or muscle membrane, usually due to a rapid flow of sodium ions across the membrane into the cell
Adenosine Di phosphate (ADP) one of the chemical products of the break down of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) for energy during muscle contraction
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) a chemical that serves as the immediate source of chemical energy for most of the energy consuming reactions of the body, especially for muscle contraction. ATP is split into ADP and phosphate to form energy.
Alpha Motor Neurons nerves that cause skeletal muscle fibers (extrafusal fibers) to contract
Cross Bridges the linkages between thick and thin filaments during muscle contraction
Depolarization reduction in the electrical charge across the resting cell membrane
Motor Neuron a nerve cell that conducts an impulse from the central nervous system to muscles or glands
Motor Unit a motor neuron and all the muscle fibers which it innervates
Neuromuscular Junction (motor endplate) the junction between motor nerve ending and sarcolemma membrane of a muscle fiber
Sarcolemma the muscle fiber membrane
Sarcoplasm the cytoplasm of muscle fibers
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum a network of channels extending throughout muscle fibers; regulates the availability of calcium to the troponin molecules of the thin filaments
Transverse Tubules (T-Tubules) channels that conduct action potentials from the surface of a muscle fiber to the interior of the fiber
Tropomyosin a protein in the thin filaments of skeletal muscle; blocks attachment sites on actin
Troponin a protein in the thin filaments of skeletal muscle; inhibits myosin ATPase activity until troponin is inactivated by calcium ions released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum
Muscle Properties force that causes joints to move; irritability, contractibility, distensibility, elasticity, and reparability
Muscle Functions pulley/lever system, stores creatine phosphate for quick energy, protects glands and organs. gives definition to body, maintains body temperature, and helps pump the blood in veins back to the heart
Individual muscle fibers......(finish sentence) always contract in a straight line
What are the two categories of contraction planes? Fusiform & Pennate (3 types of pennate-fan shaped muscles
What are the 3 types of pennate-fan shaped muscles? Unipennate, Bipennate, Multipennate
Fusiform straight muscle fibers; these fibers run longitudinal and parallel with the muscle's long axis
Pennate Muscles fan shaped muscles and they have tendons that run parallel with the muscle's longitudinal axis with the muscle fibers running obli
Name 6 Types of Muscles Triangular, Bicipital, Multipennate, Bipennate, Unipennate, Fusiform
Name the Planes of Motion Median line defines the center of the right and left sides. Front plane = anterior. Back plane = posterior. Outer side = lateral. *if exercise is out of alignment , planes of motion are less efficient.
Leverage: The longer the lever,..... the more muscle strength it takes to lift the same amount of weight. (takes more strength with a longer forearm)
Created by: LSwanhart