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Psych and Resp

Psychological, Respiratory Drugs

QuestionAnswer
Psychological drugs- treat psychological conditions from depression to schizophrenia and often work on the chemicals in the brain
Antianxiety Drugs- treat anxiety (also referred to as sedatives, tranquilizers, muscle relaxants)
Benzodiazepines- common antianxiety class that can lead to dependency and abuse
Benzodiazepines Treat: general anxiety disorders, panic disorder, phobias, insomnia, muscle spasm, alcohol withdrawal, and sometimes seizures
Benzodiazepine Drugs: alprazolam (Xanax) - Oral diazepam (Valium) - IV, PO, alcohol withdraw lorazepam (Ativan) - IV, PO, alcohol withdraw
Non-benzodiazepines- treatment of anxiety, not prone to dependency/abuse, and does not cause sedation
a Non-benzodiazepine: buspirone (Buspar)
Antispasmodics (muscle relaxants)- relax spastic or rigid muscles (specifically in the spine)
an Antianxiety drug: cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril) - PO, Oral
Antidepressants- treatment of depression by increasing the availability of certain chemicals within the brain (e.g. serotonin)
Depression- feelings of sadness, worthlessness, inability to sleep, disinterest in any activities, weight fluctuation, and in its most extreme form, thoughts of suicide (suicidal ideation)
Postpartum depression- symptoms of depression following birth of baby
Psychiatric disorders with depression component: OCD Bipolar Disorder
Tricyclic Antidepressants- inhibiting certain neurotransmitters (norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin) from being reabsorbed in order to increase levels in the brain
a Tricyclic Antidepressant: nortriptyline (Pamelor)
SSRIs (Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors)- inhibit one specific neurotransmitter (serotonin) in order to increase levels in the brain
What does SSRI stand for: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
SSRIs drugs: fluxetine (Prozac) sertraline (Zoloft) citalopram (Celexa) duloxetine (Cymbalta)- for nerve pain escitalopram (Lexapro) - something of Celexa
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)- prevents the breakdown of the specific neurotransmitter monoamine, increasing its stores
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are used for: treatment of agoraphobia(“fear of different settings”) and social anxiety; very powerful with potentially lethal drug and dietary (tyramine-containing foods) interactions
an example of an MAOI drug: selegiline (Emsam)- transdermal patch-safest
MAOIs stands for: Monoamine oxidase inhibitors
Tetracyclic compounds and other types of antidepressants: trazodone (Desyrel) - sleeping agent, side effect in men, priatism bupropion (Wellbutrin) - smoking cessation
Antipsychotic medications (neuroleptics or major tranquilizers)- typically used for the treatment of mental illness categorized as psychosis by calming areas of the brain allowing normal function.
Psychoses- mental conditions involving loss of contact with reality and significant social impairment
Types of Psychoses: bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, delusions, and mania
Symptoms mitigate or eliminated: hallucinations, tension, hyperactivity, combativeness, or severe antisocial behavior
Antipsychotic drugs: chlorpromazine (first) (Thorazine) haloperidol (potent) - (Haldol) - used for combative lithium (Lithobid) - bipolar pop., needs monitoring olanzapine (Zyprexa) - Oral, Sublingual, IV clozapine (Clozaril) - have to enroll in prog., needs monitoring
clozapine (Clozaril) an antipsychotic drug needs to be monitored and can be fatal must enroll in a program
lithium (Lithobid) an antipsychotic drug for bipolar population needs to be monitored
haloperidol (Haldol) an antipsychotic drug used for combative potent
chlorpromazine (Thorazine) an antipsychotic drug used first
olanzapine (Zyprexa) an antipsychotic drug Oral, Sublingual, IV
Sedative-Hypnotics- depress the central nervous system and cause drowsiness (sedative) or sleep (hypnotic)
a Sedative-Hypnotic drug: zolpidem (Ambien) most common at CCHS
Stimulants- increase activity Ex. caffeine, methylphenidate (Ritalin)
Tranquilizers (minor)- calming effect
Anti-Alzheimer Drugs- acts to treat symptoms of Alzheimer disease by increasing availability of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine
an Anti-Alzheimer drug: donepezil (Aricept)
Respiratory drugs- used to treat problems of the respiratory system (everything from sniffles to coughs to asthma) Ex. Antihistamines and Bronchodilators
Antihistamines- drugs that act against histamines by reducing or blocking histamines to relieve symptoms of different types of allergies (itching, sneezing, runny nose, watery eyes, and asthma) as well as nausea and vomiting (antiemetic properties)
diphenhydramine (Benadryl) OTC
brompheniramine (Dimetapp, Robitussin) OTC
doxylamine (NyQuil) OTC
loratadine (Claritin, Alavert) OTC
fexofenadine (Allegra) OTC
cetirizine (Zyrtec) OTC
Motion Sickness Antihistamines: scopolamine (patch) meclizine (prescription) dimenhydrinate
Anxiolytic Antihistamine: hydroxyzine (Vistaril, Atarax) – typically used with post-op pts
Bronchodilators- relax the smooth muscles surrounding the airways
Bronchodilators treat: Asthma Pulmonary Conditions: bronchitis COPD emphysema pneumonia
Bronchodilators - 3 Categories: beta-agonists anticholinergics theophylline
Beta-agonists can be either “long acting” or “short acting.”
Short Acting Beta-Agonists: albuterol (Proventil and Ventolin) – like an inhaler
Long Acting Beta-Agonists: fluticasone and salmeterol (Advair)
Anticholinergics: (slow acting)- block the action of the neurotransmitter (acetylcholine) in the brain and reduces spasms of smooth muscles
an Anticholinergic drug: ipratropium (Atrovent) Often combine with beta-agonist (e.g. Combivent = albuterol (the beta-agonist) and ipratropium (the anticholinergic).
theophylline (Theo-Dur, Slo-bid)- is a long-acting bronchodilator that can be administered via IV or taken in pill form It is most commonly taken for severe cases of asthma and must be taken daily
Created by: wallace263