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English #1

Beginning Reading to Grade 5

Book Knowledge Includes an understanding of the following: title, author, illustrator, front cover/back cover/spine of book, handling books, and caring for books.
Alphabet Knowledge The ability to discriminate letters from numbers; pointing to letters; naming letters; knowing the corresponding sound of each letter
Concepts of Print This is a form of communication which conveys a message and follows rules (such as reading from left to right and top to bottom). Also understanding that letters grouped together form words and sentences.
Oral Language Skills and Vocabulary Includes both receptive and expressive vocabulary skills (understanding and use of words); ability to express thoughts, feelings, ants and needs; size of vocabulary and sentence length.
Early Writing Progresses through these stages: scribbling, linear drawing, letter-like forms, letter and early word symbol relationships, invented spelling and standard spelling.
Phonological (Phonemic) Awareness This includes rhyming, alliteration (beginning sounds awareness), segmenting and blending.
Story Concepts and Comprehension Ultimate goal of reading. To retain information, children must understand the following: stories are organized into beginning-middle-end; stories have settings, characters and main idea; through stories we make predictions a reconize solutions.
Big Books Large books that emphasize predictability, repetition, and rhyme used in whole class activities
Cognitive Development Acquisition of knowledge
Creative Drama Acting out non-scripted stories with spontaneity
Developmentally Appropriate Practice Teaching framework or approach in which the teacher considers the child's competencies and abilities and adjusts instruction accordingly
Direct Experience Active participation in an event
Direct Instruction Teacher controlled learning environment through structured lessons, goal setting, choice or activities, and feedback
Dramatic Play Emulating real experiences, such as playing the mother or father in a housekeeping center or on a shopping trip
Drite Combination of writing and drawing
Emergent Literacy Developing awareness of the inter-relatedness of oral and written lanaguage
Environmental Print Words that children frequently encounter (men, women, exit, stop, etc.)
Experience Charts Written accounts about common experiences, dictated by the student(s) and recorded by the teacher
Guided Reading Procedures Methods designed to help readers improve their organizational skills, comprehension, and realization
Invented Spelling Unconventional spellings developed by children attempting to associate sounds with letters
Predictable Books Books that use repetition, rhythmic language patterns, and familiar concepts
Preoperational Stage Piaget's 2nd stage of cognitive development (ages 2 to 7)
Regressions Eye movements back to a previously read word or phrase for the purpose of rereading
Scaffolding Offering support through modeling or feedback, and then gradually withdrawing support as student gains competence
Shared-Book Experience Reading and rereading books in a group activity for understanding and enjoyment
Sight Words Words that are recognized immediately without having to analyze their meaning
Vicarious Experences Indirect experiences such as those read in a book or seen on television
Writing Workshop Framework for teaching writing that includes a mini-lesson designed to improve writing skills, a writing and conference time when students are authentically engaged in composing while the teacher meets individually with each student
Zone of Proximal Development Span between a child's actual skill level and potential level when assistance is given
Frequent Review Studying new material that you've heard on the same day
Humor or Exaggeration Helps lengthen retention or memory (If I park in the 3rd row at Wal-Mart, I say, "Let it be" all the way to the door.)
Rehearse Aloud Verbally rehearse the information with someone or a video camera
Physical Learning Throw a ball, type, or rewriting notes to learn
Color Coding Organizes information for easy storage and retrieval
Behaviorism Teacher centered theories
Constructivism, sociolinguistics, information processing Child centered theories
Accommodation More difficult construction process
Self-Efficiacy Confidence that a goal will be attained
Metacognition Thinking about your own thinking
Four Cueing Systems Phonological, Syntactic, Semantic, Pragmatic
Graphemes Letters or letter combinations
Balanced Elementary Literacy Program Reading, Literature, Spelling, Writing, Oral Language, Vocabulary, and Comprehension
Basal Readers Reading textbooks with accompanying workbooks and reading selections
BICS Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills
CALP Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
Letter Knowledge Letter's name, how to write, direction, use, sound, consonant or vowel
LEA Language experience approach
Stages of Children's Literacy Emergent, beginning, fluent
Preschool Emergent Literacy
Grade 1 Beginning Literacy
Fluent Literacy Can read more than one paragraph; generally occurs the middle of first grade
Assessment Formative testing to gain feedback
Evaluation Summative asessment is assigning a grade based on testing
Independent Reading Reading on one's own
Instructional Reading Reading with support
Frustration Reading without success
Adjective Modifies a noun
Noun Person, place, thing, or idea
Adverb Modifies a verb, another adverb, or an adjective
Verb Action or Linking Verb
Linking Verbs am, is, are, was, were, has been, had been, have been, will have been, shall have been, will be, shall be, and other verbs like appear and become
Pronoun Replaces a noun
First Person Pronouns I, me, and my
Second Person Pronouns You and your
Third Person Pronouns He, she, it, they
Conjunctions FANBOYS (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so)
Preposition In, out, around, through, over, under, etc.
Interjection Words that show expression. Yes! You passed the MEGA!
Antonym Opposite meaning of a word
Synonym Similar meaning of a word
Homonym Same spelling of word but different meaning; I planted a spruce tree. I need to spruce up my sewing room.
Homophones Words that sound the same but are spelled differently: to, too, two
Homographs or Heteronyms Words that are spelled the same, but are pronounced differently and have different meanings: Bow before the audience. Wear a bow in your hair.
Syntax Set of rules in a language. It dictates how words from different parts of speech are put together in order to convey a complete thought.
Consonant Digraphs Two consonants stand together to make a common sound. The most common consonant digraphs are sh, ch, th, and wh. These "h brothers" are generally taught before ph.
Consonant Blends Two or more consonants are blended together, but each sound may be heard in the blend.
Dipthongs When vowels come together, they may either be two distinct syllables, or may merge into one syllable. When they merge, they form what are known as diphthongs. If they stay separate they are simply two monophthongs.
Autonomy Individual’s capacity for self-determination or self-governance
Four stages of learning anything Unconscious incompetence, conscious incompetence, conscious competence, unconscious competence
Five stages of reading Word Attack Skills, comprehension, evaluation, application and retention, and fluency
Reading material is generally categorized into ______ and ________. Fiction and nonfiction
Fiction Comedy, drama, history, romance, religious, fantasy, humor, mystery, and science fiction
Nonfiction Biography and autobiography, narrative, and speech
Open Syllables Occurs when a vowel is at the end of the syllable, resulting in the long vowel sound, e.g. pa/per, e/ven, o/pen, go & we.
Closed Syllables Occurs when a syllable ends with a consonant, resulting in a short vowel sound, e.g., cat, sit, got & wet.
Dolch Sight Words 220 of the most common words and 95 additional nouns in children's reading books, in alphabetical order; some of the words can't be sounded out.
Inference Assumption or conclusion that is rationally and logically made, based on the given facts or circumstances.
Fry Sight Word List 1000 widely accepted words that are the most used words in reading and writing. The list is divided into ten levels and then divided into groups of twenty-five words, based on frequency of use and difficulty.
Alliteration A stylistic device in which a number of words, having the same first consonant sound, occur close together in a series.
Bed, Bath, & Beyond Alliteration
Anagram Formed by using exactly the same letters of the original word but with a different arrangement. debit card = bad credit
Palindromes Words that read the same backward and forwards: Never odd or even
Spoonerisms Words or phrases in which letters or syllables get swapped: Blow your nose; Knows your blow
Oxymoron Two words that contradict themselves: jumbo shrimp, pretty ugly, definitely maybe
Panagram Sentence that uses every letter of the alphabet: The quick brown fox jumps over a lazy dog.
Mnemonics Phrases that help us remember information: HOMES is a memory device that helps us remember the Great Lakes (Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, and Superior)
Tom Swifties Puns: "I need a pencil sharpener," said Tom bluntly.
Malapropisms A word is misused in a sentence: My sister has extra-century perception.
Etymology The country or region of the world from which the word originated
Rebus Picture puzzle
Created by: marybahner
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