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Antibiotics

QuestionAnswer
Anti-infective drugs- either slowing the spread of or killing infectious agents. Examples: antibiotics, antifungals, antiparasitics, and antiviral drugs.
Antibiotics- drugs that kill or injure bacteria (one-celled microorganisms).
Broad-spectrum antibiotics- effective against many different kinds of bacteria
Penicillin- a distinct class of antibiotics that is commonly prescribed to treat a variety of infections and sometimes combined with other drugs to improve effectiveness.
amoxicillin type of penicillin Amoxil (first line of treatment for ear infections)
amoxicillin/clavulanate combination drug (pencillin) Augmentin (given if resistant to Amoxil)
Cephalosporins- a group of broad-spectrum antibiotics that are similar to penicillin but are used on strains of bacteria that have become resistant to penicillin. 5 Generations . 10% chance to have a reaction if they are allergic to penicillin.
cefazolin type of cephalosporin Ancef (IV only, commonly prescribed for pre-op)
cephalexin type of cephalosporin Keflex (oral, used for skin infections, bit by something)
cefepime type of cephalosporin Maxipime (IV only, hospital setting to treat pneumonia)
Macrolides- reduce production of proteins, which bacteria need to survive, and this slows the growth of or even kills the bacteria.
azithromycin type of macrolide Zithromax (oral, IV, Z-Pack)
Lincosamides- work similar to macrolides Ex. clindamycin (Cleocin)
Macrolides- Primarily prescribed to treat pulmonary infections Can be used in penicillin allergic patients
Tetracyclines- broad-spectrum (increase bacterial resistance) been around a long time
doxycycline type of Tetracycline (Vibramycin) for Lyme’s Disease
tetracycline type of Tetracycline (Sumycin)-treatment of acne, hard on stomach
Quinolones- broad-spectrum antibiotics that work on bacteria by disrupting bacterial DNA, and therefore replication.
Quinolones- Drug of choice- ophthalmic infections, upper respiratory infections, urinary tract infections, some sexually
ciprofloxacin type of Quinolone Cipro
levofloxacin type of Quinolone Levaquin
gentamicin Garamycin Serious infections and must be administered intravenously (IV) Must be monitored and could cause hearing loss
vancomycin “drug of last resort” Vancocin Toxic antibiotic used to treat serious infections that are not responsive to other antibiotics
linezolid “drug of last last resort” Zyvox To treat serious infections that are resistant to vancomycin
Antiviral agents- to treat viral infections Typically does not kill all of the virus (lessen symptoms and shortens outbreak)
Antiretrovirals- entire class of antivirals to treat HIV Ex. zidovudine (Retrovir)
acyclovir an antiviral agent Zovirax treats herpes infection (IV, ora)
amantadine an antiviral agent Symmetrel used as a treatment or prophylaxis against influenza type A virus (ONLY)
oseltamivir an antiviral agent Tamiflu used as a treatment or prophylaxis against influenza
Antifungal agents- to treat fungal infections Ex. athlete’s foot, jock itch, ringworm, dandruff and yeast infections
nystatin – treats thrush an antifungal agent Mycostatin (Powder, Cream, Oral suspension)
clotrimazole an antifungal agent Lotrimin, Mycelex (Athlete’s foot, jock itch)
fluconazole an antifungal agent Diflucan (PO, IV)
Cytotoxic Drugs Common Side Effects- nausea/vomiting, hair loss, pain, and fatigue
Cytotoxic Drugs- kill or damage normal healthy cells used in chemotherapy to treat cancer (antineoplastics) used as immunosuppressives in the treatment of HIV or to prevent rejection of transplanted organs
methotrexate a cytotoxic drug Trexall (tablet or IV, IM) other non-chemo indications (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, ectopic pregnancy
Corticosteroids- similar to cortisol, a hormone naturally produced in the adrenal glands and prescribed in tapering doses
Prolong use of Corticosteroids can cause... adrenal suppression (body quits making cortisol).
Corticosteroids treat: prevents organ rejection in transplant patients arthritis (juvenile, rheumatoid) inflammation, rash lupus ankylosing spondylitis inflammatory bowel disease Addison disease scleroderma asthma Crohn disease
prednisone a corticosteroid Deltasone (allergic reaction or really sick )
dexamethasone a corticosteroid Decadron (IV and oral in hospital)
cortisone a corticosteroid Cortone Acetate (knee injection)
Created by: wallace263