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A&P2 Chapter 22-23

The Lymphoid Stystem & Immunity & The Respiratory System

What are the functions of the lymphatic system? To transport fluids back to blood and act as the bodies defense and resistance to disease
What are the components of the lymphatic system? Lymph vessels, lymph nodes, tonsils, spleen, thymus
What is the role of the lymph nodes? they constantly monitor the lymph for the presence of antigens
The thoracic duct originates from an expanded chamber called the? cisterna chyli
What pathway returns most of the lymph to the venous circulation? thoracic duct
The cells directly responsible for cellular immunity are? cytotoxic T
The cells responsible for humoral immunity are the ______ cells. B cells
Lymphocytes that destroy foreign cells or virus-infected cells are ____ cells. cytotoxic T
In which tissues and organs can lymphocytes be found? Spleen, tonsils, lymph nodes, and thymus
______are clusters of lymphatic nodules deep to the epithelial lining of small intestine. Peyer patches
The term lymphadenopathy refers to? a chronic or excessive enlargement of lymph nodes
The cells responsible for the production of circulating immunoglobulins are? plasma
Stem cells that will form B cells or NK cells are found only in the? bone marrow
Lymphatic vessels are located in almost all portions of the body EXCEPT the? CNS
T cells develop from stem cells in the? thymus
If the thymus shrank and stopped making thymosins, we would expect to see an immediate decrease in the number of? T cells
What are the innate defenses of the body? the skin, complement, interferons and inflammation
Examples of physical barriers are? sebaceous glands, mucus, epithelia, and epidermal layers
An inflammatory response is triggered when? mast cells release histamine and heparin
Localized effects of inflammation are? swelling, redness, heat and pain
What is the role of histamine during an inflammatory response? to increase blood flow and vascular permeability, to cause inflammatory response
The release of endogenous pyrogen (orinterleukin-1) by active macrophages would cause? produce a fever
Microphages include? both neutrophils and eosinophils
Various types of macrophages are derived from? monocytes
What causes chemotaxis of phagocytes? when a phagocyte moves toward a chemical signal at the site if an infection
The swelling of lymph nodes during an illness would generally indicate? the affected lymph nodes contain an increased number of lymphocytes
What are the effects of activating the complement system? stimulation of inflammation, opsonization and chemotaxis
The cells that perform immunological surveillance are the ____ cells. NK
What is adaptive immunity? the ability of the body to specifically react to an infection
What are characteristics of the adaptive defenses? versatility, tolerance, memory and specificity
Immunity that results from exposure to an antigen in the environment is called _____ immunity. naturally acquired active
A substance that provokes an immune response is called an? antigen
Immunity that results from antibodies that pass through the placenta from mother to fetus is called ____ immunity. naturally acquired passive
In an experimental situation, a rabbit is exposed to a viral antigen to which makes antibodies. These antibodies are then purified and injected into a human with the same viral disease. This is an example of? passive immunization
Class II MHC molecules are found on? lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells
What is the role of helper T cells? 1) trigger B-cell division, plasma cell maturation, and antibody production 2) enhance production of memory and cytotoxic T cells 3) attract macrophages to the affected area 4) enhance nonspecific defenses
T cells and B cells can be activated only by? exposure to a specific antigen at a specific site in a plasma membrane
The various classes of immunoglobulins are differential on the basis of their? heavy-chain constant segments
Immunoglobulins that are most abundant and are responsible for resistance against many viruses, bacteria and bacterial toxins are? IgG
Immunoglobulins that attach to and sensitize mast cells and basophils are? IgE
Immunoglobulins that are found on the surface of B cells and that may activate antibody production are? IgD
A crime scene investigator found that a biological fluid sample contains a large amount of IgA-type antibody. This fluid is probably? tears
Inappropriate or excessive immune responses to antigens are? allergies
Milly has just received a kidney transplant and is taking cyclosporine A. What does this medication do? suppresses helper T cells, thus preventing rejection
What age related changes occur in the immune system? Lymphocytes takes longer to build defenses to specific diseases, older adults are more prone to consequences of illness, increase of cancer, autoimmunity
What are the components of the upper respiratory tract? nose, nasal cavity, pharynx. paranasal sinuses
What are the components of the lower respiratory tract? larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles
The nasal cavity, pharynx, and larynx constitute the ____ portion of the airway. conducting portion of the airway
The respiratory epithelium of the conducting airways consist of? pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
The larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles all make up the? lower respiratory tract
Exposure to ____ generally causes a rapid increase in the rate of mucus production in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. noxious stimuli, unpleasant stimuli, allergens, and debris or pathogens
The flap-like structure that prevents food from entering the larynx is called the? epiglottis
What is the role of the respiratory defense system? series of filtration mechanisms that prevent airway contamination by debris and pathogens
Inhaling through the nostrils is preferred over the mouth because? it allows better conditioning of the inhaled air
The ____ is shared by the respiratory and digestive systems. pharynx
What are the functions of the nasal mucosa? warms, moisten; filter the air that passes through the nasal cavity
During a choking episode, most foreign objects are lodged in the ___ bronchus due to its larger diameter and stepper angle. Right primary
The airway that connects the larynx to the bronchial tree is the? trachea
Why is the C shape of the tracheal cartilage important? large masses of food can pass through the esophagus during swallowing
Trace the flow of air from nose to alveoli. Nose-Nasal cavity-pharynx-larynx-trachea-carina-primary bronchus-secondary-bronchus-terminal-bronchus-respiratory bronchioles-alveoli
The actual sites of gas exchange within the lungs are the? alveoli
The respiratory membrane of the gas exchange surfaces consists of? simple squamous epithelium
Damage to the type II pneumocytes of the lungs would result in? a loss of surfactant, decreased rate of gas exchange, increased surface tension in the alveoli, and increased tendency to alveolar collapse
Respiratory function deteriorates as a result of pneumonia because inflammation? causes fluids to leak into the alveoli and causes respiratory bronchioles to swell and constrict
What can cause pulmonary embolism? blood clot, fat droplets, air bubbles, amniotic fluid, tumor cells, and foreign bodies. The most common is a blood clot in the lower extremity veins (legs or pelvis)
The condition resulting from inadequate production of surfactant and the resultant collapse of alveoli is? respiratory distress syndrome
If the volume of the lungs increases, what happens to the air pressure inside the lungs? decreases
Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is? greater than the pressure in the atmosphere
While playing in an intramural football game, Joe is tackled so hard that he breaks his rib. He can actually feel a piece of the rib sticking through the skin and he is having a difficult time breathing. Joe is probably suffering from? a pneumothorax
About 70% of carbon dioxide is transported in deoxygenated blood as? bicarbonate ions in the blood plasma
When does oxyhemoglobin form during respiration? during external respiration
What factors can increase the amount of oxygen released from hemoglobin to peripheral tissues? decreased pH
The term hypercapnia refers to? labored breathing
If the dorsal respiratory group of neurons in the medulla oblongata were destroyed bilaterally? a person would stop breathing
SHORT ANSWER Compare and contrast lymphatics capillaries to blood capillaries. lymphatic capillaries are more permeable (endothelial cells are not tightly joined - minivalves vs. blood capillaries that have tight junctions/gap junctions), are very wide spread; not present in RBM, bones, entire CNS
SHORT ANSWER List and briefly describe the four general properties of immunity. 1) Specificity: activated by and responds to a specific antigen 2) Versatility: ready to confront any antigen it has encountered 3) Memory: "remembers" any antigen it has encountered 4)Tolerance: responds to foreign substances by ignores normal tissues
SHORT ANSWER List and briefly describe the components of the lymphatics system. Lymph vessels, lymph nodes, tonsils, spleen, thymus. All function to drain fluid & protein, transport fats, make lymphocytes (immunity) of which B lymphocytes transform into plasma cells that make antibodies that fight infection
SHORT ANSWER What are the primary functions of the respiratory system? 1) to move air to and from the exchange surfaces of the lungs, 2) to provide an area for gas exchange between air and circulating blood 3) to protect respiratory surfaces from dehydration and environmental variations
SHORT ANSWER How would you justify the statement, "bronchioles are to the respiratory system as arterioles are to the cardiovascular system." Smooth muscle tissue in bronchiole/arterioles control structure diameters. As vasodilation/vasoconstriction of arterioles regulate blood flow/distribution, bronchodilation/broncholconstriction control amt of resistance to air flow/distrib. of air in lungs
Created by: jnipper



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