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SS7.Egypt FC Full

Adapted from R. Newbery's "ANCIENT EGYPT STUDY GUIDE" + DP's set, same name

TermDefinition
Amun Ra/Re -God of creation/renewal -King god, or most important god -Has the head of a falcon with a sun disk over his head. -To the Egyptians, the rising sun was supposedly a symbol of renewal and creation, like this god
Osiris -God of the underworld, original god king. -Pharaohs were supposed to become this god when they died. When they lived, they were Horus (his son). -He was shown with green skin. -He was the husband of Isis. -Killed by his jealous brother Set.
Horus -God of the sky -Son of Osiris and Isis -Said to give his power to each pharaoh. Each pharaoh is him in human form -Head of a falcon -When fighting his uncle Set(h), he lost an eye
Anubis -God of funerals and death -Protected the dead and weighed souls -Shown with the head of a jackal or wild dog -Supervised the making of mummies
Pharaoh -Mostly kings, but there were also queens -Ruler of Egypt thru Old, Mid., and New. (name means "great house") -Said to be gods -Protected/directed the people -Made laws, collected taxes, performed rituals, constructed pyramids, and lead the military
Menes/Narmer's Legacy -First pharaoh in the world. -Was from Upper Egypt, conquered Lower Egypt and united Egypt around 3100 BCE. -Memphis was the capital, built where the two halves met.
Khufu's Legacy -"The Great Builder" -2551- 2528 BC -Built the Great Pyramid at Giza, last standing Ancient Wonder of the World -Said he was a god -Made sure Pharaoh was the top authority by overseeing harvest, storing food surplus, and controlling lots of officials.
Senusret I's Legacy -"Patron of the Arts" -1971 BCE to 1926 BCE -Ruled Egypt well, stable and unified -Promoted artisans who made art, literature, and architecture -Great literature like the story of Sinuhe was written -Jewelry made from gold, copper, and gems was made
Hatshepsut's Legacy -Promoter of trade -First female pharaoh -1473 BCE to 1458 BCE - Wore men's clothes -Said that father was a god -Built monument at Dayr al-Bahri with 200 sphinxes
Pharaoh Tutankhamun/Tutankhaten's Legacy -"Boy King" -Became Pharaoh at age 9, died at 19 -1333 BCE to 1324 BCE -Made Egypt polytheistic again, because his father Akhenaten unpopularly made Egypt monotheistic.
King Tut and Howard Carter Connection -This archaeologist found the boy king's tomb on November 4th, 1922, and it was believed to be the only undisturbed tomb found. -He worked for Lord Carnarvon, a wealthy British lord
Ramses II's Legacy -"The Great" (others were named in his honor) -2nd longest reigning pharaoh in history -1290 BCE to 1224 BCE -Military leader: Captain in the army at age 10.
Early Dynastic Period's Legacy This period began when King Menes/Narmer united Upper and Lower Egypt and formed the capital city, Memphis. This period was a time of new developments like the Egyptian calendar (to predict floods), and the formal hieroglyphics.
Old Kingdom’s legacy This period was the age of the pyramids. King Djoser and Imhotep created the Step Pyramid at Saqqara. Pharaoh Khufu created an ancient wonder of the world in his Pyramid at Giza.The 3rd and 4th dynasties were golden, but not in the 5th and 6th.
Middle Kingdom’s legacy This age was a period of reconstruction after the 1st Intermediate Period. Art, literature, architecture and education flourished under Senusret I's rule.
New Kingdom’s legacy This period was the Empire or Golden Age, where the Egyptians conquered and defeated the Hyksos, reclaimed their land, and gained new technology. Ramses II was a great military leader in this period. Akhenaten tried to make Egypt monotheistic.
Late Dynastic Period’s legacy This period was a time of culmination for the Egyptian empire. The Persians, Greeks, Kushites, Assyrians and Romans all conquered Egypt, leading to the pharaohs' decline and fall from Cleopatra's hands to Alexander the Great's.
How does "Pharaoh" relate to social structure? The highest social class was the leader/king/queen of all of Egypt. They were in charge of the military, oversaw the harvest, made executive decisions, and were regarded with high respect. They claimed to be gods or related to gods.
How do "Goverment Officials" relate to social structure? This class was the second down on the social pyramid. It had three roles:  1. Vizier - advised the pharaoh + appointed officials  2. Chief Treasurer - collected taxes 3. General of the Armies -second in command, created alliances/truce
How do "Priests" relate to social structure? This class was third down on the pyramid. They were in charge of the temples, religious rituals + oversaw mummifications. High P. Advised the pharaoh on religious matters Temple P. In charge of the gods' temples. Other P. Took care of daily tasks
How do "Scribes" relate to social structure? This class was fourth down on the pyramid. -Writers, authors, recorders. -Worked for government/priests/nobles. -All men. -"Social mobility"
How do "Artisans" relate to social structure? This class was fifth down on the pyramid. Laborers- high skill. Looked down upon. Stone carvers, carpenters, jewelers, leather workers, metal workers.
How do "Peasants" relate to social structure? This class was last (unless you count slaves) on the pyramid. Laborers- no skill. Egypt depends on them, they depend on Nile. Worked on on royal projects Planting Season: planted their crops, wheat/barley Harvest Season: cut + collected harvest
3 seasons in Egypt 1. Akhet: Flooding. 4 months of flooding left peasants free to work on royal monuments. 2. Peret: Planting. Peasants planted crops like wheat and barley. 3. Shemu: Harvest. Singing, dancing, and teamwork were present.
Rosetta Stone An obsidian block found in 1799 by Napoleon's Army. It had 3 languages inscribed on it: Greek, demotic, hieroglyphs. It detailed an event involving Ptolemy V. It is located in the British Museum, and is extremely valuable, as it let us read hieroglyphs.
Mummification Process, Part 1 All organs except the heart were removed. The brain was removed with a hook. Organs were packed in canopic jars,and natron was put in and on body for 70 days.
Mummification Process, Part 2 The body was packed with linen, covered in resin and wrapped with linen. Amulets were placed on the body, and another layer of linen went on before putting it into the sarcophagus.
Hieroglyphics A formal Egyptian way of writing, with more than 700 characters. It was used for religious and royal documents.
Valley of the Kings Pharaohs were buried here, and were supposed to stay there undisturbed forever. However, some tombs were robbed.
Created by: vlondon23