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Ch 9 America in WWI

Chapter 9 America in World War I Gateway to U.S. History

TermDefinition
Alliance System was made up of two groups, the Central powers (Germany, Austria- Hungary, Italy(1914), and Turkey).The second group was the Allied powers (Russia, France, Great Britain, and United states)
Militarism the belief or desire of a government or people that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests.
Nationalism patriotic feeling, principles, or efforts.
Archduke Francis Ferdinand was an Archduke of Austria-Hungary from 1896 until his death. His assassination in Sarajevo precipitated Austria-Hungary's declaration of war against Serbia. This caused the Central Powers (including Germany and Austria-Hungary) and Serbia's allies to declare war on each other, starting World War I.
Serbia This country was invaded by Austria-Hungary over the assassination of the Archduke Francis Ferdinand by a Serbian national.
Austria-Hungary This is the country that invaded Serbia when their leader was assassinated (Archduke Francis Ferdinand). This event started World War I.
Allied Powers the countries of Serbia, Russia, France, the United Kingdom (Great Britain, Ireland & Scotland), Italy, Belgium and the United States.
Central Powers the countries of Austria-Hungary, Germany, Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire.
Trench Warfare a type of combat in which opposing troops fight from trenches facing each other.
Airplanes By the time World War One had ended, aircraft had become far more sophisticated and had differentiated into fighters, bombers and long-range bomber
Chemical Warfare The use of chemical agents as a weapon of war or terror. From the mustard gas used in World War I to the highly lethal neurotoxin Sarin that is potentially available for use today, chemicals are considered a weapon of mass destruction, and their use is condemned by most civilized nations.
Naval Blockade (in the ocean or waterway) is an effort to cut off supplies, war material or communications from a particular area by force, either in part or totally. The British did this to Germany during WWI
Lusitania a British luxury liner sunk by a German submarine in the North Atlantic on May 7, 1915: one of the events leading to U.S. entry into World War I.
Zimmerman Telegraph was an internal diplomatic communication issued from the German Foreign Office in January 1917 that proposed a military alliance between Germany and Mexico in the event of the United States' entering World War I against Germany.
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare is a type of naval warfare in which submarines sink vessels such as freighters and tankers without warning, as opposed to attacks per prize rules
Mobilization he action of a country or its government preparing and organizing troops for active service.
Conscription compulsory enlistment for state service, typically into the armed forces.
American Expeditionary Force (AEF) consisted of the United States Armed Forces sent to Europe under the command of General John J. Pershing in 1917 to help fight World War I.
Selective Service Act authorized the federal government to raise a national army for the American entry into World War I through the compulsory enlistment of people.
War Industries Board was a United States government agency established on July 28, 1917, during World War I, to coordinate the purchase of war supplies.
Herbert Hoover A political leader of the twentieth century, who was president from 1929 to 1933
War Bonds consists of debt securities issued by a government for the purpose of financing military operations during times of war.
Espionage Act allowed government censorship of the mails and imprisonment of those who interfered with the draft
Sedition Act made it a crime to use "disloyal" language (newspapers, flyers etc).
Committee of Public Information was an independent agency of the government of the United States created to influence U.S. public opinion regarding American participation in World War I.
Eugene Debs A political leader of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. He was five times the presidential candidate of the Socialist party.
Schenck vs United States case decided in 1919 by the U.S. Supreme Court. During World War I, Charles T. Schenck produced a pamphlet maintaining that the military draft was illegal, and was convicted under the Espionage Act of attempting to cause insubordination in the military and to obstruct recruiting.
Oliver Wendell Homes was an American jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1902 to 1932, and as Acting Chief Justice of the United States January–February 1930
Great Migration was the movement of 6 million African-Americans out of the rural Southern United States to the urban Northeast, Midwest, and West that occurred between 1910 and 1970.
German Americans Great prejudice was shown against these people during WWI. More than 4000 were imprisoned.
Conscientions Objectors a person who for reasons of conscience objects to serving in the armed forces.
Fourteen Points Fourteen goals of the United States in the peace negotiations after World War I. President Woodrow Wilson announced these to Congress in early 1918.
Treaty of Versailles was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end. The Treaty ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.
War Guilt Clause another name for Article 231 of the Treaty of Versailles, the beginning of the reparations section that stated Germany was to assume all responsibility for the damage caused during World War I and later in World War II