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AP Euro History CH23

Society and Politics

What was the Population trends of Europe around 1850 vs 1900? European population in 1850 was about 226 million vs 400 million in 1900 and 450 million in 1910.
What Technologies help the migration of people in Europe? Railways, Steamships, and better roads made it much easier for people to move around.
What encouraged people to emigrate from Europe to the new lands of North America, Latin America, and Australia? Cheap land and better wages and new opportunities with more than 50 million Europeans emigrated between 1850 and 1930. In 1850, most emigrants were from Great Britain (mainly from Ireland), Germany, and Scandinavia. Later from Southern and eastern Europe
Society was driven by the Second Industrial Revolution, how did the Second Industrial Revolution differed from the First Industrial Revolution? The First Industrial Revolution was a transition from rural farming to Industrial manufacturing based around advances in Textiles, Iron making, and Steam Power. The 2nd Revolution was associated with Steel making, Chemicals, Electricity, and Oil
What were some of the advances and peoples in the 2nd Industrial Revolution? Henry Bessemer created a process for making Steel cheaply, Solvay process for making Sodium Carbonate, Electricity Generation for Industries and homes, Cars and gas engines
What Economic Difficulties in Europe and when? By 1875 to 1900, Industrial and agriculture slowed with Worker Strikes common. Europe now had competition with its product from other countries in the world. Some Banks failed causing a shortage of capital.
Around this time, How was the Middle Class was changing? Some middle class such as small business owners and professionals increased in wealth, were better educated whose social status grew, started to differentiate themselves into a upper middle class group.
In the late 19th Century, the European City was changing how? The governments of Europe was changing the major European cities to be the center of life businesses, government offices, large stores and entertainment. In France, Paris was the most transformed, with many public buildings and parks and the Eiffel Tower.
The Middle class was getting priced out of the city and wanted find something more affordable and out of the way. They were looking for a less congested place to live and developed the City Suburbs with Railways and Subways connecting home to work.
How is Sanitation important to Social and Political stability? Mid 19th Century Science was learning about diseases and how they spread. The European governments were launching city clean up program and building new water systems and sewer systems which help drop the mortality rate greatly which keep people happy
In the 19th Century, how were women rights compare to men rights? Women's rights were inferior to men's rights, They usually could not own property and in some places wages earned must be handed over to a husband, and in some places could not open a bank account.
What kind of barriers did women of this period have? The women was required to give obedience to the husband. The husband had rights over the children and divorce was very difficult. Most higher educational schools did not allow women thus limiting their education
With 2nd Industrial Revolution, what kind of jobs were available for women? Many unskilled labor jobs. Some women became clerks, secretaries, retail store sale. Some became elementary school teachers. Women wages were inferior to men, even for the same job. Poor working women had difficulty finding work.
How was the life of a middle class women? A middle class women enjoy more comfort and luxury but their talents and ambitions was sharply curtailed. Women were to bear and raise children and care for the home
Important women in the political feminism movement In 1847 - 1929, Millicent Fawcett led the National Union of Women Suffrage movement. In (1858-­‐1928) Emmeline Pankhurst found the Women's Social and Political Union.
What Women movements in France and Germany? In France there was the National Council of French Women and in Germany there was the German's Women Organization.
What were the European Jew's right like? It varies from place to place. In some places they had full rights of citizenship and in others only limited rights. In Europe they had right similar as Christians. But in some places they could not own land. In Russia, they are aliens.
What happen as the European Jews gain more rights? Over time the Jews gain more rights and participate in many aspect of society and government. But Anti-Semitic undertone grew as Jews became dominate in banking and other areas. As a counter, the Jews started Zionist movement.
Due to the 2nd Industrial Revolution, what developed? Workers formed worker unions to fight for a better standard of living.
How big was the trade unions? By 1910, membership in the trade unions was 3 million in Britain, and 2 million in Germany and 1 million in France.
How did Socialism use the trade union worker? Socialism wanted to unite workers worldwide. Socialism wanted a revolution to achieve worker rights.
From Unionism to Marxism? In 1864, the International Working Men Association had a rally where Karl Marx give the inaugural address asking workers to purse their rights through a political process or a revolution if needed.
In Britain, how did the Socialist do? In Britain, the union was dock worker, gas worker and other unskilled workers. They form the Labour party and won 29 seat in Parliament. They form the Fabian Society to fight for worker rights.
Key Socialist in France? Jean Jaures (1859-­‐1914) and Jules Guesde (1845-­‐1922). Georges Sorel (1847-­‐1922) wrote "Reflection of Violence"
Key Socialist in Germany? Ferdinand Lasalle (1825-­‐1864) founded the German Socialist Democratic Party (SPD). Chancellor Otto von Bismarck tried to suppress the SPD with various laws but was not successful. While not a Socialist, Bismark was the first to setup a welfare program.
What was the Erfurt program? Author by Bebel and Kautsky. The program declared the imminent death of capitalism and the necessity of socialist ownership of the means of production.
What was Revisionism? Eduard Bernstein (1850-­‐1932), a British writer who questioned Marx's pessimistic attitude towards capitalism in his book (Evolutionary Socialism). His ideas is called Revisionism.
What was the result of Russia Industrial Development? Russia expanded its growth in coal, iron and steel and the railways. But this growth had 3 million factory worker in 1900 living in very bad conditions. The Social Revolution Party was founded in 1901 and opposed industrialization.
Who was Lenin? Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (1870-­‐1924) a follower of Socialist Gregory Plekhanov (1857-­‐1918). Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov toke the name Lenin. He wrote a book (What is to be done) in 1902. He deeply involved in the debates about Marx.
Created by: Dquong101