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Unit 7 p4-6

Max Planck and Quanta -Studied the radiation of atoms -believed that atoms unevenly released radiation rather than steadily
Albert Einstein's E=mc2 -Theory of Relativity said that time and space were dependent on matter -E=mc2 related particles to light velocity and mass, showing they're dependent -Lead to the "atomic age"
Friedrich Nietzsche's "slave morality" -believed that Christians were "slaves" to the ideology of Christianity -Believed Christianity focused too much on the incorrect sides of life that held people back
Henri Bergson's "life force" -Believed that life was the fusing together of multiple elements such as time and space -Believed reality can't be understood completely at once because there are too many different elements.
Sigmund Freud and pscychoanalysis -Focused on hypnosis and dreams to analyze the brain -created idea of the ego, the id, and the superego
The ego, the id, and the superego -The ID:the center of unconscious drives and pleasure -The ego: the logic center that must trump the pleasure of the Id in order to exist in society -The Superego: the morality center of the brain.
Social darwanism and Herbert Spencer -Believed that society naturally evolves just like in evolution -said government should not interfere in this process
Houston Stewart Chamberlain -Was racist due to foundation laid by nationalism -stated that the German Aryan race was superior to the the other races
Ernst renan's Life of Jesus -a scholar who attempted to portray a historically representation of Jesus -said Jesus was a normal man
Emilie Zola and Leo Tolstoy -Zola: a naturalist author who portrayed the struggles in urban life -Tolstoy:a naturalist author, writing "war and peace" telling a story, occurring during the Napoleonic warso
The symbolists -anti-realism poets who rejected the real world and focused on symbols -believed there was no objective(definite truth), but only subjective(opinions and belief)
Impressionism -art style going away from accuracy and harsh edges towards feeling -often had somewhat muddled paintings with some form of light defining the painting.
Camille Pissaro and Claude Monet -Pissaro: one of impressionism's founders who helped show the importance of feeling over accuracy -Monet: most well known impressionist painter, enjoyed painting relationship between water, sky, and light
Post-Impressionism -Similar to Impressionism, but embraced edges of objects along with colors -Turned away from objective to subjective
Paul Cezanne and Vincent van Gogh -Cezanne: turned away from Impressionism to embrace underlying geometry of nature -van Gogh: believing painting should express ones emotions using color and such
George Eastman -Producer of the first Kodak camera -camera made paintings move away from reflecting reality, since cameras could do it better
Pablo Picasso and Cubism -used of geometric shapes to form a picture -first cubist, paved way for abstract art
Wassily kandinsky -an abstract artist -painted "square with white border" hoping to avoid stances and only appeal to the soul
Igor Stravinsky's the rite of spring -A Russian ballet seeking to imitate primitive/genuine feeling -the oddness of the piece caused audiences to riot
Reform Act of 1884 -act passed in great Britain to give more widespread suffrage -gave vote to all men paying regular rent/taxes, adding 2 million (only male) voters
Irish Home Rule -Act that would allow for the Irish to have their own parliament, while still submitting to the British -Attempted to be passed by and Irish member of Parliament, and the Liberal leader of parliament twice, but was voted down.
France's Third Republic -A new republic created after the monarchists couldn't decide on a king -created as a temporary fix, but lasted 65 years
the Commune -A revolutionary group of republicans against a monarchist majority -Revolution defeated by monarchists, who when not able to decide on a king, created the France's Third Republic
General Geroges Boulanger -attractive candidate for those opposed to the third republic -sissied out, which strengthened republican movement
the Reichstag -The lower house of German parliament elected by universal male suffrage -Seen as the voice of the lower class and threat to middle and upper class
Kulturkampf -Otto von Bismark's attack on the Catholic Church -joined by middle class who distrusted catholic loyalty to Germany
Bismark's welfare legislation -enacted to bribe workers away from socialism -very progressive social security system included
William II -Dismissed Otto von Bismark after he planned to repress workers further -Wanted to pursued his own policies
Magyarization -an attempt by the Hungarian side of Austria-Hungary to keep their side unified -made the language of the Maygars the Hungarian language
Alexander III and Nicholas II -Alex: tried strictly enforced laws against liberalism and democrats Nick: Tried to continue dad's policies, but was too behind the times
Russification -Made Russian the only language in order to unify Russia under Alex's rule -Only made the other nationalities try harder to revolt and rise up
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