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Ch. 01 Origins

QuestionAnswer
A body of people living in a defined territory who have a government with the power to make and enforce law without the consent of any higher authority. state
The institution through which a society makes and enforces its public policies. government
A goal of government or something that government decides to do. public policy
A form of government in which the supreme authority rests with the people. democracy
Having supreme power within its own territory; neither subordinate nor responsible to any other authority. sovereignty
A form of government in which a single leader or small group has absolute power . dictatorship
The body of fundamental laws setting out the principles, structures, and processes of a government. constitution
The power to interpret laws, determine their meaning, and settle disputes. judicial power
The power to execute, enforce, and administer the law. executive power
The power to make law. legislative power
Began with families>then families banded into clans>then into tribes>eventually states formed from these tribes. evolution theory
One strong person or small group claimed control over an area and controlled people living in it. force theory
Free persons unite voluntarily to form a contract allowing themselves to be ruled. social contract theory
Used by kings during Middle Ages who claimed their rule came directly from God. divine right theory
A government in which the power to rule is held by a small, usually self-appointed elite. oligarchy
A government in which a single person holds unlimited power. autocracy
A centralized government in which all government powers belong to a single, central agency unitary
An alliance of independent states. confederation
A government in which the powers of government are divided between a central government and several local governments. federal government
A form of government in which the executive & legislative branches are separate, independent of one another, & coequal; this form was invented by the U.S. presidential government
A form of government in which the executive is made up of the prime minister or premier, and that official’s cabinet; common form of government in Europe parliamentary government
Who developed direct democracy? Greece
Who gave the world the idea of a republic (representative democracy) Rome
Who gave us the terms senator and dictator? Rome
The origin of the word democracy: demos (people) and kratia (rule) came from where? Greece
This English philosopher stated people are born with equal rights to life, liberty, and property John Locke
Which French philosopher argued that government power should be divided among three branches? Baron de Montesquieu
What are the six purposes of government as outlined in the Preamble? form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty
Who wrote the Declaration of Independence? Thomas Jefferson
In what year was the Declaration of Independence written? 1776
What was Locke's social contract theory? Free persons unite voluntarily to form a contract allowing themselves to be ruled. John Locke stated that people have the right to break the contract if government doesn’t serve to benefit the people.
How did Locke influence the writing of the Declaration of Independence and the American Revolution? This theory was the basis of Jefferson’s ideas in the Declaration of Independence. Jefferson's "life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness" comes from Locke's Second Treatise of Government.