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Brain

Brain, CN, memory, sleep

QuestionAnswer
What are the two layers of dura matter 1. Periosteal layer 2. Meningeal layer
What is a venous sinus Select areas where there is a space between periosteal and meningeal layer. Drains blood from the brain into internal jugular veins
What are the three dural folds 1. Falx cerebri 2. Tentorium cerebelli 3. Falx cerebelli
What is the falx cerebri Separates the two cerebral hemispheres in longitudinal fissure
What does the falx cerebri contain Superior sagittal sinus and inferior sagittal sinus
What is the tentorium cerebelli Separates the cerebellar hemisphere from cerebrum
What does the tentorium cerebelli contain Transverse sinus
What is the falx cerebelli Divides cerebellar hemispheres
What anchors the pia matter to the brain Astrocytes
What separates the two lateral ventricles Septum pellucidum
What is the interventicular foramen Allows flow of CSF from lateral ventricles to 3rd ventricle
How much blood supply goes to the brain ALWAYS 20%
What does the cerebral aqueduct run through The midbrain
Function of the choroid plexus Produces CSF
Function of arachnoid villi Reabsorbs CSF to venous blood
Name 3 functions of the Medulla 1. Relay nerve signals to brain and spinal cord 2. Control autonomic function (heart beat & breathing) 3. Coordination of body movements
What nuclei of 4 cranial nerves does the medulla contain? IX, X, XI, XII
What are the pyramids Large motor tracts
What is the decussation of the pyramids Crossover point, left cortex controls motor activity of right side of body
What are the olives and where are they located Gives precision to movements, proprioceptive signals, and ventral surface of medulla
Name 2 functions of the Pons 1. Modify respiratory rythmicity center in Medulla 2. Process and relay info to/from Cerebellum
What nuclei of 4 cranial nerves does the Pons contain V, VI, VII, VIII
What and where is the corpora quadrigemina The superior colliculi and the inferior colliculi on the posterior side of the midbrain
What does the superior colliculi control Visually tracking moving objects
What does the inferior colliculi control Reflex turning of head to sounds
Name 2 functions of the Thalamus 1. Receives nearly all sensory info on its way to the cortex 2. Interconnected with limbic system
What does the hypothalamus contain Dozens of nuclei
What are the mammillary bodies Relay station for limbic system olfactory reflexes
What is the infundibulum Structure that suspends pituitary gland
What is the pituitary gland "Master" endocrine gland
Name a function of the Hypothalamus 1. Major regulator for homeostasis of autonomic and endocrine 2. Regulates aggression, rage, pain, pleasure, and arousal 3. Sleep, body temp, food, and thirst
What is the epithalamus Small nuclei just outside of thalamus and hypothalamus
What is the pineal gland and what does it secrete Endocrine gland that secretes melatonin during darkness on the epithalamus
What is the center of the two cerebellar hemispheres called The vermis
What is the grey matter in the Cerebellum Folia
What is the white matter in the Cerebellum Arbor Vitae
What is the fissure that separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum Transverse fissure
Name 3 functions of the Cerebellum 1. Coordination of movements 2. Adjustment of postural muscles 3. Sense of equilibrium
What is the brain blood brain barrier Tight junctions that seal epithelial cells, continuous basement membrane, and astrocytes covering capillaries
What band of white matter separates the two cerebral hemispheres Corpus Callosum
What are basal nuclei Islands of grey matter within white matter
What is the basal nuclei function Subconscious control of skeletal muscle tone and coordination of learned movements
What does the lateral fissure separate The parietal lobe from the temporal lobe
What does the frontal lobe control Motor, speech (usually left side), personality, mood, social judgement
What does the parietal lobe control Sensation (except smell), language
What does the occipital lobe control Vision
What does the temporal lobe control Smell, HEARING, memory, language, emotional behavior
What does the precentral gyrus contain Primary motor area
What does the postcentral gyrus contain Primary somatosensory area
How are the cranial nerves formed Bundles of axons
Blood brain barrier function and what cannot pass Protects cells from some toxins and pathogens. (Proteins and antibiotics)
What does the SNS consist of Consists of all voluntary motor pathways outside of the CNS and all Skeletal muscle
What is the blood brain barrier permeable to Lipid soluble materials (alcohol, O2, CO2, nicotine, and anesthetics)
What does the ANS consist of All smooth and cardiac muscle, and gland cells
What are 2 components of the ANS Sympathetic division and parasympathetic
What is the Sympathetic division and what does it go through Fight or flight. The spinal cord
What is the Parasympathetic division and what does it go through Rest and digest. Cranial nerves and sacral spinal cord
Blood-CSF barrier At choroid plexus, is ependymal cells joined by tight junctions
What is the phrenic nerve Part of the cervical plexus that keeps the diaphragm alive (C3)
CSF concentration compared to plasma (interstitial fluid) More Na+ and Cl- but less K+ and Ca2
What is the ventricles lined with Ependymal cells
What is the rate of reabsorption/production of CSF The rate of reabsorption is always the same as production
What is hydrocephalus Blockage of drainage of CSF
The neurons of the ______________ send input to cerebellum Olives
What are nucleus gracilis and nucleus cuneatus and what is their function They are sensory neurons and they relay info to thalamus
Hoarseness of the voice is a sign of damage to what cranial nerve Vagus X
Posterior 1/3 of tongue taste and BP control and respiration is what cranial nerve Glossalpharyngeal IX
What and where are the Pneumotaxic and Apneustic centers Help control breathing and in the pons
Function and location of the middle cerebellar peduncles Carry sensory info to the cerebellum (pons)
Posterior 2/3 of tongue, tears and saliva production, and facial expressions are what cranial nerve Facial VII
What is the primary sensory nerve for your face and controls mastication Trigeminal V
What happens when you have had no O2 to the brain for 4 minutes Coronal cell death due to lysosomes breaking open and cells starting to auto-digest
Where are the nucleus of CN III and IV The midbrain
What holds the corticospinal tract The cerebral peduncles in the midbrain
What and where is the Tegmentum Connects to cerebellum and helps control fine movements through red nucleus. Located in the midbrain
What and where is the substantia nigra Sends inhibitory signals to basal ganglia and thalamus. Located in the midbrain
What structure, if degrades, will lead to parkinson's disease and tremors Substantia nigra
What is the tectum in the midbrain Corpora quadrigemina
What is the reticular formation Clusters of grey matter scattered throughout pons, midbrain, and medulla
What does the motor arm of the reticular formation control Balance and posture, relay info from eyes/ears to cerebellum, track moving objects
What is the origin of descending analgesic pathways (pain) Motor arm of reticular formation
What is the reticular activating system (RAS) Alerts cerebral cortex to sensory signals to awaken from sleep , maintains consciousness, regulates sleep, injury leads to irreversible coma
What is the function of the inferior cerebellar colliculi Carries sensory info from spinal cord
What is the function of the superior cerebellar colliculi Carries motor fibers that extend to motor control areas
What is the habenular nuclei and where is it located Emotional responses to odor and in the epithalamus
What and where is the subthalamus Works with basal ganglia, cerebrum, and cerebellum to control body movements. It is inferior to the thalamus
What and where are the circumventicular ograns (CVO) Monitor changes in blood chemistry due to lack of blood brain barrier. In walls of 3rd and 4th ventricles
What are sites of entry for HIV virus/dementia into brain Circumventicular organs (CVO)
What is the cerebral cortex Grey matter overlying white matter
What are the two types of cells in the cerebral cortex Stellate cells and Pyramidal cells
Stellate Cells Have dendrites projecting in all directions
Pyramidal cells Have an axon that passes out of the area
What is part of the cerebral white matter Commissural fibers, association fibers, and projection fibers
What takes up most of the volume of the cerebrum White matter
Projection tracts Extend vertically from brain to spinal cord forming internal capsule and ascending and descending tracts
Association tracts Connect lobes and gyri of each hemisphere to each other
Commissural tracts Cross from one hemisphere to another (corpus callosum)
Where is the main area for equilibrium The cerebellum
Name 3 functions of the CSF 1. Buoyancy 2. Cushions brain from hitting skull 3. Chemical stability (rinses away waste)
Where is the primary gustatory area Bottom of postcentral gyrus
What is the broca's area Motor speech area, right under precentral gyrus. Transmits to primary motor cortex for action
What is the Wernicke's area Auditory association center, right under post central gyrus. How you turn words to speech
Cerebral palsy Loss of motor control and coordination. Damage to motor areas. Not a progressive disease, but irreversible
Cognition Awareness, perception, thinking, knowledge, memory
What would happen if a brain lesion occurred in the temporal lobe Agnosia (can't recognize objects) of prosopagnosia (can't recognize faces)
What would happen if a brain lesion occurred in the pariteal lobe Contralateral neglect syndrome (can't recognize one half of body)
What does the prefrontal cortex control How emotions are expressed (judgement)
Where do emotions form Hypothalamus and amygdala
Parkinson's disease Neurons from the substantia nigra do not release enough dopamine onto basal ganglia
What is the limbic system Loop of corticol structures surrounding deep brain. Intense emotional brain
Name a function of the amygdala Emotions
Name a function of the hippocampus Organizing sensory and cognitive info and turning it into a memory
What structures are part of the limbic system (amygdala, hippocampus, fornix, and cingulate gyrus
Are are some possible triggers for sleep 1. Adenosine levels increase with brain activity 2. Adenosine levels inhibit activity in RAS
How does caffeine make you stay awake It prevents adenosine from inhibiting RAS
What are the 4 stages of brain waves Alpha, beta, theta, delta
What happens in the first 90 minutes of sleep Go from 1 to 4 of NREM, go up to stage 2 of NREM, go to REM. Cycle repeats until REM totals 90 to 120 minutes
REM sleep Where most dreams occur. Neuronal activity and oxygen is at its highest. Total sleeping/dreaming time decreases with age. Occurs about 5 times a night EEG resembles awake person. Help store and strengthen info from memory
What is immediate memory Ability to hold something in your thoughts for just a few seconds.
What is reverberating circuits The immediate memory of what just happened "echoes" in our minds for a few seconds
What happens with facilitation and short term memory Makes it last longer with tetanic stimulation (rapid, repetitive signals) causing Ca2 to accumulate and cell becomes more likely to fire
What is posttetanic potentiation To jog a memory. Ca2 level in synaptic knob has stayed elevated long after tetanic stimulation, so little stimulation will be able to recover that memory
What is declarative long term memory Retention of facts as texts or words
What is procedural long term memory Retention of motor skills
What is long term memory Physical remodeling of synapses with new branching of axons or dendrites
What is long term potentiation Tetanic stimulation causes ionic changes (Ca2 entry) Neuron produces more neurotransmitter receptors, synthesizes more protein, releases nitric oxide, signals more neurotransmitter release
What is anterograde amnesia Can not store new data
What is retrograde amnesia Can not remember old data
In what order does fact memory go in Sensory receptor --> Sensory cortex --> Sensory association center --> Amygdala / Hippocampus --> Hypothalamus/basal forebrain --> Thalamus --> Ventral median prefrontal cortex --> Basal forebrain --> Sensory association area
In what order does skill memory go in Sensory association area --> Hippocampus --> Cerebellum --> Caudate and lentiform nuclei --> Premotor cortex/motor control
What is aprosodia A lesion in the broca's area where an individual cannot recognize certain letters
What is the angular gyrus and where is it located Processes text into a form we can speak, right behind wernicke's
Where are language centers located in most people Left cerebral hemisphere
What is aphasia Inability to use or comprehend words due to deficit in broca or wernicke's areas
Lesion to Broca's area Nonfluent aphasia - know what they want to say but can't speak, entire vocab around 2-3 words
Lesion to wernicke's Fluent aphasia - Speech normal and excessive but makes little sense
Damage to common auditory association area or integrative area Anomic aphasia - Speech and understanding are normal but text/pictures make no sense
What is CN 0 First found in humans in 1913. The reaction to pheromones. Begin in olfactory epithelium but terminate in lateral/medial septal nuclei and preoptic areas (hot button sex regions)
What is cerebrovascular accident CVA and types Third leading cause of death (stroke.) Ischemic and hemmorhagic
What is the purpose of Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) If used within 3 hours of a stroke it can decrease the risk of permanent disability
Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) Episode of temporary cerebral dysfunction because of impaired blood flow to the brain. Dizziness, slurred speech, numbness, paralysis on one side, double vision
Alzheimer disease Dementia= loss of reasoning, ability to read/write, talk, eat, walk. Loss of neurons that release ACh, plaque of abnormal proteins on neurons, tangled protein filaments on neurons,
What can be beneficial for Alzheimer's Estrogen, Vitamin E, ibuprofen, and ginko biloba
What is a contusion Bruising of brain, always lose consciousness, blood in CSF
When does alpha occur When awake and resting with eyes closed
When does beta occur With eyes open performing mental tasks
What does theta occur During sleep or emotional stress
When does delta occur During deep sleep
Created by: Destynelamar