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phleb I

Chapter 24 - Blood Collection Techniques

TermDefinition
what is venous reflux & how can it occur when the blood is able to re-enter the vein - can occur if the tubing of a butterfly is moved or poor positioning of pt's arm
where is the tourniquet placed 3-4" above the antecubital space
Invert gently mixing blood w/an additive in a figure 8 motion
what is the purpose of inverting to mix the blood and additive appropriately and avoid microclots
why should you fill tubes with additives completely so the blood & additive ratio is correct - otherwise the sample will be compromised
what are some reasons for a failed venipuncture missed vein, poor needle placement, tube vacuum insufficient or expired, tourniquet is too tight or not tight enough
what is lipemia abnormal amount of fat in the blood - will appear milky or cloudy
what is hemolysis and how can it occur destruction of RBCs - releases hemoglobin into the liquid portion of the specimen. caused by shaking or dropping the tube
how to choose appropriate gauge needle by vessel and placement of vein and how much blood is needed
what additive is in a lavender tube EDTA
what does a lavender top tube test for hemotology - RBCs, WBCs, WBC differential, platelets, hematocrit, hemoglobin
another term for butterfly needle winged infusion kit
CLSI Clinical Lab Standard Institute - formerly NCCLS - sets phlebotomy standards
what is the purpose of an additive to preserve the integrity of the specimen and allow for accurate results
what is a hematoma swelling or bruising resulting from an accumulation of blood (at the puncture site) - broken blood vessels under the skin
what is hemoconcentration the plasma (H2O)seeps into the interstitial space so you have a higher concentration of formed elements
why does hemoconcentration occur can occur if you leave the tourniquet on too long
why do you wipe away the first drop of blood in a capillary puncture b/c it contains tissue fluid
another term for capillary puncture skin or dermal puncture
what additive is in a light blue capped tube and what does it test sodium citrate - coagulaton studies (fibrinogen and prothrombin)
what may occur if a vacuum tube is under filled the blood to additive ratio will be off which can cause inaccurate results
gauge size for routine venipuncture 21g
gauge size for adults with smaller veins or children 22g
gauge size for children and difficult veins in adults 23g = butterfly
gauge size for infants and premies 25g
gauge size used with syringe 20g
what is PST - what color tube plasma separator tube - light/mint green or black and green marble
what tube is most commonly used for routine blood chemistry SST - gold or red and black marble - contains thixotropic gel
what additive is a gray tube - what does it test for potassium oxalate, & sodium floride - glucose
what additive is in mint/light green lithium heparin with thixotropic gel
what additive is in dark green sodium heparin
what tube is used for STAT chemistry tests PST - mint/light green or green and black marble - contains thixotropic gel and lithium heparin
what is the difference between plasma and serum plasma has clotting factors, serum doesn't
what is the purpose of the order of draw to avoid cross contamination of additives
how should you position your pt for venipuncture sitting upright with back support, feet flat on the ground, arm straight and down resting on something
blood chemistry everything in the blood from birth i.e. hormones, lipids, glucose, proteins, enzymes, electrolytes, urea, lead, iron, prothrombin, fibrinogen, albumin,BUN, creatine, etc.
serology typically what is in the blood not from birth i.e. vaccinations, antibodies, toxicology, illness
what tube would you use for a blood culture sterile - need both anaerobic and aerobic broth
veins within antecubital space median cubital, cephalic (thumb side), basilic (pinky side)
amber colored tube used with photosensitive specimen
vacuum tube method used for routine blood specimen due to quick draw and multiple tube collection
aliquot portion of a specimen that is used for testing
anticoagulant additive used to prevent clotting
found in PST and SST thixotropic gel
EDTA ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid
CBC complete blood count
volumes most commonly used for blood collection 2-10ml
capillary order of draw EDTA, other additives such as heparin, SST, no additive tubes
transportation of tubes upright position
capillary puncture skin puncture method used to obtain small amounts of blood for testing; usually performed on fingertips
amount of time a tourniquet kept on 60 seconds
plasma liquid portion of whole blood that comes from a sample that contains an anticoagulant
venipuncture puncture of a vein to collect blood
primary container original container in which the specimen is collected
tourniquet used to distend veins to assist with venipuncture
serum liquid portion of blood that remains after blood has clotted
guage diameter of the lumen of a needle
lancet sterile disposable sharp-pointed blade used to puncture the skin to collect blood
evacuated tube collection tube which contains a vacuum that facilitates collection of blood
constrict narrowing of a blood vessel
NCCLS National Committee of Clinical Laboratory Standards
microclot small clots due to insufficient inverting
fainting syncope
QNS quantity not sufficient
optimal results using the most appropriate tubes for the best possible results
Created by: gcjlentz