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More Drug Categories

Drug Categories 33-42

QuestionAnswer
Antihypertensives Drugs that lower blood pressure by interrupting nerve impulses to the brain or causing blood vessels to relax and get bigger.
Major antihypertensive medication classes: beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, and diuretics
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors lower blood pressure by dilating blood vessels to improve the heart performance
ACE inhibitors reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke routinely prescribed for the treatment of hypertension are also useful in treating CHF recognize them by the ending "pril" pt has a dry cough
ACE inhibitors Generic and Trade Name: enalapril Vasotec fosinopril Monopril lisinopril Zestril -common in CCHS quinapril Accupril ramipril Altace benazepril Lotensin
Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs) AKA angiotensin II antagonists & AT-2, work by preventing angiotensin from reacting on receptors in blood vessels used by patients who cannot tolerate ACE inhibitors, Angiotensin-2 Receptor Antagonists, and AT-2. Generic names have endings "sartan"
Commonly prescribed ARBs (Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers): (generic mostly ends in "sartan") candesartan (Atacand), eprosartan (Teveten), irbesartan (Avapro), losartan (Cozaar), telmisartan (Micardis), valsartan (Diovan)
Commonly used to treat high blood pressure are: clonidine( Catapres) methyldopa (Aldoril)
Diuretics (water pills) release sodium and water from your body
Diuretics are prescribed to ... reduce extracellular fluid volume
Most commonly prescribed diuretics are: the thiazide, loop, and potassium-sparing.
Thiazide diuretics: inhibit active exchange of sodium, chloride, and potassium in the cortical diluting segment of the ascending loop of Henle. This diuretic can lead to low potassium levels—termed hypokalemia.
Common diuretics include: hydrochlorothiazide Microzide (most common) chlorothiazide Diuril chlorthalidone Hygroton indapamide Lozol metolazone Zaroxolyn
Loop diuretics: inhibit exchange of sodium, chloride, and potassium in the thick segment of the ascending loop of Henle. This diuretic can lead to low potassium levels—termed hypokalemia.
Common Loop diuretics are: furosemide Lasix (oral and IV, most common) bumetanide Bumex torsemide Demadex ethacrynic acid Edecrin
Potassium-sparing diuretics ("weak diuretic"): inhibit reabsorption of sodium in the distal convoluted and collecting tubule and are often used in conjunction with a thiazide or loop diuretic. Does not cause hypokalemia
Common Potassium-sparing diuretics are: spironolactone Aldactone triamterene Dyrenium amiloride Midamor
Beta Blockers (beta-adrenergic blocking agents) Prescribed for angina, hypertension, arrhythmias, and heart attack "Slow you heart beat" Generic names have ending "lol"
Blockers that are commonly prescribed include: propranolol Inderal atenolol Tenormin metoprolol Lopressor timolol* Betimol (primarily treat glaucoma) metoprolol succinate Toprol XL nadolol Corgard carvedilol Coreg betaxolol Kerlone
Calcium Channel Blockers (calcium antagonists or calcium blockers) work directly on the heart to dilate blood vessels and lower blood pressure and treat angina and arrhythmia.
Commonly prescribed calcium channel blockers include: (generic mostly end in "pine") amlodipine Norvasc diltiazem Cardizem, Cartia XT, Tiazac nifedipine Procardia, Adalat verapamil Calan, Isoptin, Verelan nisoldipine Sular nimodipine Nimotop felodipine Plendil bepridil Vascor
Antiarrhythmics prevent or treat arrhythmia by changing the nerve impulses in the heart, stimulating the involuntary muscles to speed up the heartbeat; also lowers blood pressure and can help with chest pain
Antiarrhythmics include: procainamide Procan SR and Pronestyl sotalol Betapace digoxin Lanoxin amiodarone Cordarone
Lopressor (metoprolol) used to treat arrhythmia but falls into the beta blockers class of drugs
Hyperlipidemia is the elevation of lipids in the blood. Primarily this refers to cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia), although it can also mean elevated triglycerides.
Common types of cholesterol-lowering drugs include: statins, resins, nicotinic acid (niacin), and gemfibrozil clofibrate
Most common antihyperlipidemics are... statins (most common) resins nicotinic acid (niacin) gemfibrozil clofibrate
Common antihyperlipidemics are: atorvastatin Lipitor lovastatin Mevacor pravastatin Pravachol rosuvastatin Crestor simvastatin Zocor
Zetia (ezetimibe) lowers cholesterol
Bile Acid Sequestrants type of antihyperlipidemics; target the bile acids that contain cholesterol when they enter the gut and prevent them from being reabsorbed back into the gut.
Common Bile Acid Sequestrants are: cholestyramine (Questran) colestipol (Colestid)
Fibrates used to lower triglycerides Lopid (gembrozil) TriCor (fenofibrate)
Common Fibrates are: gemtibrozil (Lopid) fenofibrate (TriCor)
Vasodilators work directly on the smooth muscles of the blood vessel walls, causing them to widen (or dilate); primarily used in treatment of hypertension
hydralazine (Apresoline) a by-the-book vasodilator. It opens up the blood vessels, making it easier for the heart to pump and lowering blood pressure Common in CCHS
minoxidil (Rogaine) to treat high blood pressure; side effect hair growth
isosorbide (Imdur and Isordil) a nitrate and works by relaxing blood vessels and allowing blood vessels to dilate; prescribed primarily to treat angina or chest pain
Most commonly used vasodilator nitroglycerin (NitroQuick and Nitro-Bid) relaxes the blood vessels treats chest pain sublingually (under the tongue)
Other indications for beta blockers: used to treat glaucoma, migraines, anxiety disorders, and certain kinds of tremors.
Mechanisim of action (beta blockers) target the beta receptor found on cells of the heart muscles, smooth muscles, airways, arteries, kidneys, and other tissues that are part of the sympathetic nervous system and lead to stress responses, especially when they are stimulated by epinephrine.
Mechanisim of action (beta blockers) Beta blockers interfere with the binding to the receptor of epinephrine and other stress hormones, and weaken the effects of stress hormones.
Mechanisim of action (calcium channel blockers) work on certain types of cells found in the muscles of the heart and the smooth muscles of the blood vessel walls, decreasing the force of contraction of the muscle by preventing (blocking) calcium from entering the cells.
Indications for calcium channel blockers: hypertension atrial fibrillation angina migraines Raynaud’s disease
Drug-Food Interaction- calcium channel blockers: Grapefruit or Grapefruit juice
Lopressor (metoprolol) a beta blocker and is also used to treat arrhythmia
Antihyperlipidemics Treat of hyperlipidemia (elevation of lipids in the blood) Cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia) Elevated triglycerides
Statins: (generic ends in "statin") atorvastatin Lipitor lovastatin Mevacor pravastatin Pravachol rosuvastatin Crestor simvastatin Zocor
Zetia (ezetimibe)- lowers cholesterol by inhibiting the absorption of cholesterol at the brush border of the small intestine, leading to a decreased delivery of cholesterol to the liver.
Rhabdomyolysis (Rhabdo) joint pain
niacin (vitamin B3) lowers triglycerides causes "flushing" hard on stomach
ACE stands for: angiotensin-converting enzyme
ARBs stands for: angiotensin II receptor blockers
Digitalis Preparations- increases the force of the heart’s contractions, which can be beneficial in heart failure and for irregular heartbeat.
digoxin and digitoxin (Lanoxin) are digitalis preparations
Major antihypertensives classes: Beta blockers Calcium channel blockers Diuretics
Hypotensive agents - lower and treat high blood pressure
Common hypotensive agents: clondine (Catapres) methyldopa (Aldoril)
Created by: wallace263