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Drug Categories

Drug Categories 24-32

Non-Narcotic Analgesics aspirin acetaminophen ibuprofen
(NSAIDs) non-steroidal anti-inflammatories
aspirin – acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) Brand names include: Bayer, Bufferin, Ecotrin, Excedrin
acetaminophen – good at killing pain and lowering fever does not reduce swelling only analgesic recommended for use by pregnant women
ibuprofen – can be classified as either an analgesic or an NSAID pain reliever and fever reducer highly useful for reducing redness and swelling
naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn, Anaprox) – an NSAID used to alleviate pain, fever, and swelling
Most commonly prescribed to treat both inflammation and pain: indomethacin (Indocin) piroxicam (Feldene) tolmetin (Tolectin) nabumetone (Relafen) diclofenac sodium (Voltaren)
Celebrex COX-2 inhibitor NSAID
Narcotics or opioids derived from the opium poppy work on the brain to relieve pain tend to cause drowsiness cause a feeling of euphoria highly addictive dispensed as tablets or intravenously
Generic opioids: hydrocodone codeine oxycodone morphine methadone propoxyphene tramadol meperidine fentanyl
Percocet oxycodone and acetaminophen
Tylox oxycodone and acetaminophen
OxyContin oxycodone
Percodan aspirin and oxycodone
Vicodin hydrocodone and acetaminophen
Lorcet hydrocodone and acetaminophen
Ultram tramadol
Demerol meperidine
MS-Contin morphine
Duragesic fentanyl
Brand Name Narcotic Medications: Percocet Tylox OxyContin Percodan Vicodin Lorcet Darvon Ultram Demerol MS-Contin Duragesic Darvocet
Anesthesia refers to a loss of pain and sensation through the use of drugs
Anesthetics drugs that are used to reduce or eliminate sensation.
Three Main Types of Anesthesia: Local Regional General
Local anesthesia numbs only one specific area of the body, usually accomplished using a needle injection, ointment, or spray.
Regional anesthesia used to numb a larger area, although not the entire body, and is accomplished by injecting the anesthetic near a cluster of nerves.
Regional Anesthesia includes: an epidural, which numbs the torso during labor and delivery an interscalene block for spinal surgery femoral nerve block for leg surgery
General anesthesia Loss of sensation throughout the body, including the ability to breathe, and requires intubation for assistance in respiration Can be administered via IV or inhalation, or some combination of the two
Three Basic Components of General Anesthesia: An analgesic for relief of pain A paralytic for loss of sensation, muscle tone, and reflex movement An amnesic to prevent the formation of any memory of the event
Local and Regional Anesthesics: procaine (Novocain) lidocaine (Xylocaine) bupivacaine (Marcaine or Sensorcaine)
Combinations of drugs used to achieve general anesthesia: Inhalational: •nitrous oxide •halothane •desflurane Intravenous: methohexital (Brevital) midazolam (Versed) propofol (Diprivan)
Midazolam an antianxiety, amnesic, hypnotic, muscle relaxant, and sedative all rolled into one.
anticoagulants (blood thinners) Prevent the formation of clots
thrombolytics (clot busters) Break up, dissolve, and cause clots to disperse Prevent clots Usually only administered through IV in a hospital setting.
Two of the most common injectable anticoagulants: Heparin Lovenox
Most commonly prescribed oral anticoagulant: warfarin (Coumadin)
Antiplatelet drugs Interfere with the chemical reactions that cause platelets to be sticky
Most common antiplatelet drugs used to prevent clots: Aspirin (to reduce the harm caused by heart attack or MI) Plavix (clopidogrel) Effient (prasugrel) Brilinta (ticagrelor)
Anticonvulsant drugs Prevent or reduce the frequency of convulsions (seizures)
Common anticonvulsants: carbamazepine (Tegretol) felbamate (Felbatol) gabapentin (Neurontin) phenobarbital (Luminal) phenytoin sodium (Dilantin) valproic acid (Depakote)
Two categories of antiosteoporosis drugs: bisphosphonates, which prevent bone loss Hormone like drugs - SERMS (selective estrogen modulators), which increase bone formation.
tamoxifen (Nolvadex) an antiestrogen, is often used to treat certain breast cancers, but also acts against osteoporosis
bisphosphonates (prevent bone loss): alendronate (Fosamax) ibandronate sodium (Boniva) zoledronic acid (Zometa)
SERMS (increase bone formation): raloxifene (Evista) tamoxifen (Nolvadex)
ASHP stands for: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists
ICD stands for: International Classification of Diseases
CMS stands for: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid
DEA stands for: Drug Enforcement Administration
Who maintains the drug schedule for controlled substances? (DEA) Drug Enforcement Administration
Class 1 or Schedule 1 drugs are: Most dangerous drugs
Class 5 or Schedule 5 drugs are: Not as dangerous as Class 1 drugs
Brand names of aspirin: Bayer Bufferin Ecotrin Excedrin
COX-2 Inhibitor NSAID block COX-2 enzymes to decrease pain with a much lower risk of adverse GI events EX: Celebrex
NOACs stands for: Novel oral anticoagulants
Novel Oral Anticoagulants (NOACs): dabigatran (Pradaxa)\ apixaban (Eliquis) rivaroxaban (Xarelto) edoxaban (Savaysa)
Common oral anticoagulant: Coumadin (needs to have INR checked once a month)
Common injectable anticoagulants: heparin and enoxaparin (Lovenox)
gabapentin (Neurontin) anticonvulsant comes in oral form only
Created by: wallace263