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Pharmacology Intro

Pharmacology Introduction

TermDefinition
Pharmacology- is the study of source, nature, chemistry, preparation, uses, action and properties of drugs and their effects on living organisms.
Pharmaceuticals (medical drugs)- prevent, diagnose, treat diseases, and to relieve pain.
Drug- A substance or biologic that can affect the structure or function of the body and is maintained by an official pharmacopoeia or formulary
Medicinal Chemistry New drug synthesis
Chemotherapy Study of drugs that destroy microorganisms, parasites or malignant cells
Toxicology Study of harmful effect of drugs and chemicals on the body
Pharmacokinetics Mathematical description of drug disposition over time
Pharmacodynamics Study of drug effects on the body, including the bodily absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs
Molecular pharmacology Interaction of drugs and subcellular entities
Medicines (drugs)- prevent, diagnose, and treat diseases, and to relieve pain
(Drugs) Derived from- plants, animals, or synthesized in the lab.
(Drugs) Distribution- regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Prescription medications Over-the-counter (OTC) medications
Chemical Name- the chemical, molecular, or elemental make-up of the drug (e.g.. N-acetyl-para-aminophenol) Rarely used
Generic Name- derived from the chemical name and usually starts with a lower case letter. (e.g.. acetaminophen) Can be used by any company
Brand or Trade Name- This means the drug has a proprietary, trademark-protected name or registered brand name which usually starts with a capital letter in medical documents. (e.g. Tylenol®) Property of the company that owns the name
Look-Alike Sound Alike (LASA) Drug Names Drug names that look similar in appearance or have spelling similarities, and/or similar in sound, but have different indications (Tall Man Lettering)
Banthine ulcer treatment
Brethine asthma treatment
Capitrol antifungal shampoo
captopril lowers blood pressure
desipramine antidepressant
deserpidine lowers blood pressure
Procan heart medicine
procaine an anesthetic
Xanax anxiety reducer
Zantac ulcer treatment
hydralazine lowers blood pressure
hydroxyzine prevents itching
Pharmacodynamics- Biochemical and physiological effects of drugs on the body, or on microorganisms or parasites within or on the body (e.g. absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion)
Drugs interact with a receptor (s) or target substance (s) to deliver .... a response (desired and beneficial effect on the body) and are chemically changed in the body (biotransformation)
Tolerance- drugs effect diminish over time e.g. morphine
Addiction- dependence psychologically and physiologically to the drug
Contraindications- use of a drug is dangerous and ill advised
Resistance- the lack of beneficial response
Drug abuse - use of any drug in a way that deviates from the manner in which it was prescribed
Drug overdoses- any drug taken that exceeds the optimal dose
Drug underdosing- taking less of a medication than is prescribed
Idiosyncratic responses unpredictable drug toxicity
Influencing Factors of Idiosyncratic Responses: body weight and composition age diet and nutrition ethnicity genetics pathophysiology immunity psychology environment
Chronobiology - study of body rhythms
Chrono pharmacology- study of the effect of such rhythms on the effectiveness of drugs
Pharmacokinetics - describes what the body does to the drug.
Drug Interactions- Occur when one drug interacts with another drug you are taking or when your medications interact with what you eat or drink.
Adverse Reactions- are any harmful, unintended effect of a medication in normal therapeutic use and that causes significant, sometimes life-threatening conditions
Additive Action (1+1 = 2)- combination of two drugs is equal to the sum of the effects of each
Antagonistic (1 + 1 = 0)- drugs have less than an additive effect.
Synergistic (1 + 1 = 5)- drugs cause an effect greater than the sum of the individual effects of the drugs
Potentiation (a + b = B)- drug a enhances the effect of drug b into capital B or substantially increases the action of drug B.
Allergy (hypersensitivity)- can range from a simple skin rash or itch (urticaria) to a life-threatening anaphylaxis, which may include angioedema, vascular collapse, shock, and respiratory distress
Anaphylactic shock- can cause death
Anaphylaxis- exaggerated hypersensitivity reaction to a previously encountered drug or foreign protein.
Drug toxicity- poisonous and potentially dangerous effects of drugs. (e.g.. idiosyncrasy)
Iatrogenic- effect caused by treatment
Adverse reactions- harmful, unexpected reactions to a drug.
Side effects- reactions to or the consequence of taking a particular medication
Created by: wallace263