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Anatomy Chapter 4

QuestionAnswer
What are the smallest functional units of the body? Cells remember: organelles are smaller, but are not functional.
Describe the main structural features of the cell. 1. nucleus 2. cytoplasm 3. plasma membrain acronym: New Cells Please Me
Identify membrane bound organelles. 1. endoplasmic reticulum ( rough and smooth) 2. Golgi apparatus 3. lysosomes 4.Peroxisomes 5. Mitochondria acronym phrase: Ellen Pleasantly Read Good Air Mail Letters
Identify NON-membrane bound organelles 1. Ribosomes (fixed to membrane or free with cytosol) 2. cytoskeleton 3. centrosome 4. proteasome
distinguish between organelles and cell inclusion. organelles are organized structures within cells that is living. cell inclusions are temporary. Easy to remember saying: organelles are like home owners and cell inclusions are renters.
What is Cytology? The study of cells easy to remember -olgy is greek root for "study of"
What do cell plasma membranes do? Forms the outer limiting barrier, separating the internal contents of the cell from the external environment. easy to remember: Its like the Trump's new wall keeping americans "good guys" in and illegals out
What is the function of cilia? Moves mucus and other adherent substances along the cell surfaces
what is the function of flagellum help propel an entire cell ( its like a tail that it uses to move around)
what is the function of microvilli provide more extensive plasma membrane surface area for more efficient plasma membrane transport ( like little hairs )
Part of the Cell that contains genetic information Nucleus (think of it as the brain that holds all the knowledge like your brain)
Difference between nucleoplasm and cytoplasm cytoplasm is all the fluid on the outside of the nucleus in the cell, and nucleoplasm is all the fluid inside the nucleus. (think of it as nucleoplasm is like brain fluid that is only in the brain and cytoplasm as the blood in ur body minus your brain)
What is another name for cytosol? intracellular fluid
what is General function of a cell. 1. maintain integrity and shape of cell 2. obtain nutrients and obtain building blocks (nutrients that can be used) 3. dispose of waste (basically cells defend themselves, eat, and poop. )
what type of lipids forms plasma membrane? phospholipids (remember lipids are simply fats, so like a layer of fat)
name 6 major roles played by membrane protein. (only 1-3 listed on here see other card for the other 3.) 1. regulation of substances that cross plasma membrane. (border patrol agents) 2. binding of ligands (border patrol arresting illegals) 3. communication between cells (US calling mexico to come get the illegals)
name 6 major roles played by membrane protein. (only 4-6 listed on here see other card for the other 3.) 4. catalyzing chemical reactions (trump calling mexico, hurry up and get your freakin people) 5. securing the cytoplasm to the cell membrane ( patching holes in the border wall) 6. cell to cell attachments-binding cells to one another( cops help cops)
what type of protein is embedded within and extends across the lipid bilayer? Integral protein (remember the word Embedded is the same as Integral) basically mean the same thing.
What type of protein is attached loosely to surfaces of the membrane? Peripheral Proteins (remember peripheral vision out of the corner of your eye is like having loose vision)
Describe different types of membrane proteins 1-5. 6 is on additional card 1. cell surface receptor -bind to external ligand molecules 2.transport- regulate movement 3. identity marker- communication between cells 4. anchoring sites- secure cytoplasm to cell membrane 5. enzymes- catalyzing chemical reactions (speed up )
protein type 6 6. cell adhesion protein- cell to cell attachment acronym phrase: Charles Took India And Executed Cindy those are just the beginning letters or each, you have to know the rest of the word.
What is diffusion? Net movement of a substance from where it is more concentrated to where it is less concentrated ( think of a tea bag in hot water, no energy is used on your part, it just diffuses)
what is facilitated diffusion? ( think of all the sugar at the bottom of my coffee "high concentration" then stir it, sugar goes to areas where there is no sugar "less concentration" but you stirred it so energy was used in other words you assisted it) The process of transport into and out of the cell must be assisted by plasma membrane proteins.
what is osmosis? Osmosis is diffusion of water across a semi-permeable membrane. ( basically if there is more water on one side of the membrane it will eventually equalize to the other side)
What is Tonicity? the ability of a solution to change the volume or pressure of the cell by osmosis.
What is Hypotonicity? solution has lower concentration of solutes and higher concentration of water. (basically you drink purified water vs. coke)
what is Hypertonicity? Solution has higher concentration of solutes and lower concentration of water. ( Basically you drink coke and not water, a lot more junk than water)
what is Exocytosis? Large substances or large amounts of substances are secreted by the cell. (basically the cell takes a really big poop) think EXO means exit.
what is endocytosis? large substances or larges amounts of substances are taken in by cell ( basically cell just ate thanksgiving dinner) think ENDO means inside
what is pinocytosis? cellular drinking, cell internalizes droplets of interstitial fluid that contains dissolved solutes (basically the cell just drank beer) Think root word PIN means pint of beer (beer is made of up solutes)
What type of membrane transport does not require energy? Passive transport (examples: osmosis, diffusion)
What does selectively permeable mean? it is a membrane that allows certain ions and molecules though it. (basically it is the Trump membrane, it says yes to Americas and no to refugees)
Difference between passive and active processes on membrane transport. -passive does not require energy (high to low concentration gradiant, tea bag in water) -active requires energy ( like packing a bunch of people on one side of a room when there is empty space on the other side. )
What is vesicular transport? Main mechanism for exchange proteins and lips between the membrane bound organelles in eukaryotic cells. (basically the escort so stuff can get in the organelles help it function) think VES root word means vessel like a boat
What is the Internalization of droplets of interstitial fluid? "think pint of beer" Pinocytosis
what function does the rough endoplasmic reticulum perform Assembles many proteins through translation (think of doing rough translation of English to Spanish like in high school)
what is responsible for synthesis, transport, and storage of lipids? Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (smooth ER)
what is responsible for detoxification of drugs, alcohols, and poisons? smooth ER
Easy to remember saying about smooth and rough ER think about rough ER is like the ER at a hospital (assembly is like surgery) and the smooth ER is like the recovery room( storage, transport on hospital bed)
What are functions of Golgi Apparatus? Modify, sort, and package proteins and glycoproteins made by rough ER. (this is like when you go back to hospital for checkup and they have to modify and sort though treatment)
What do lysosomes? Contain digestive enzymes that immersed in acidic fluid, participate in digestion of uneeded or unwanted substances and damaged organelles. (basically they are the recycler center of the cell.)
what do peroxisomes do? membrane enclosed sacs that contain 50 different types of enzymes that remove hydrogen from molecules and in turn creates hydrogen peroxide. also engaged in lipid synthesis. basically think PERO and peroxide production.
what organelle is engaged in aerobic cellular respiration? mitochondria think aero means air and mitochondria uses oxygen to work and like an engine in a car and mitochondria is the powerplant of the cell.
what function ribosomes perform? they function in protein synthesis (put together proteins) think of RIB like ribs put together make up your ribcage
what does the cytoskeleton do? provides intracellular structural support & organization of organelles , cell division, and movement of materials Basically think it is the skeletal system of the cell.
what is the importance of the centrosome with respect to cell division? microtubules form spindle fibers to facilitate chromosome movement to assist in cellular division. basically it helps the cell replicate and make a new cell )think cells divide in the center)
what do proteasomes do? they degrade cell proteins though ATP -dependent pathway . they also control the quality of exported cell proteins
what does the nucleus of a cell do? It is the control center (brain) of the cell and is in charge of cellular regulation and production. Nucleoplasm is found and DNA are inside as well
which cells DO NOT have a nucleus? erythrocytes
what is mitosis? cell division that results in daughter cells that have the same chromosomes as the parents nucleus. example: tissue growth basically cell replicates itself identically, like a clone.
what is meosis? where a single cell divides twice to produce four nucleus and only retains half genetic info. Example is when a child is formed by egg and sperm. half from each parent.
who loves you the most? Your husband who is the freakin man!!!
Created by: Brittneymerck