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Onset of type 1 diabetes Before the age of 30
Other names for type 1 diabetes Juvenile, ketosis prone, and IDDM
What type of diabetes REQUIRES insulin injects? Type 1
What percent of diabetic patients have type 1 diabetes? 5-10%
Onset of type 2 diabetes? Usually older then 30
What percent of diabetic patients have type 2 diabetes? 90-95%
What are the two main problems in type 2 diabetes? Insulin resistances and impaired insulin secretion
What type of diabetes is ketosis more likely to occur? Type 1
What is gestational diabetes? Any degree of glucose intolerance with onset during pregnancy
What percent of pregnant women have gestational diabetes? About 18%
Other names for pre-diabetes Impaired fasting glucose and borderline diabetes
What percent of pre-diabetic develop diabetes? 29%
Normal fasting blood glucose 80-120
Normal HbA1C % 4-6%
When should a patient with diabetes not exercise? If their blood glucose is greater than 250 and keystone present in the urine
What should a diabetic patient do before moderate exercise to prevent hypoglycemia? Eat a 15g carb snack or a complex carb with protein
How many times per day should a patient on insulin check their blood glucose level? 2-4
Types of insulin Rapid-acting, short-acting, intermediates acting, and long-acting
Action of Sulfonylureas Stimulates release of insulin from the pancreas
Side effects of Sulfonylureas Hypoglycemia, GI symptoms,sulfur allergy
Can Sulfonylureas be used with insulin? Yes
Action of Insulin Secretagogues Stimulates insulin secretion from the pancreas
Can Insulin Secretagogues be used with insulin? No, it can only be used alone or with metformin
Action of Biguanides Decreases glucose production by the liver and sensitive cells to insulin
Side effects of Biguanides Lactic acidosis, diarrhea, abdominal discomfort
What type of patient is Biguanides not recommended for? Patients with renal impairment
Types of Sulfonylureas Glimpepiride, glipizide, glyburide
Types of Insulin Secretagogues repaglinide, neteglide
Types of biguanides Metformin
Action of Thiazolidinediones Sensitize body tissues to insulin
Side effects of Thiazolidinediones Hypoglycemia, drug interactions, weight gain, hyperlipidemia
Types of Thiazolidinediones Pioglitazone, rosiglitazone
Action of Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors Inhibits digestive enzyme in small intestine from releasing glucose from complex carbs in the diet
Side effects of Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors Flatulence, diarrhea, abdominal discomfort
When should a patient take Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors Immediately before meals
Types of Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors Acarbose, miglitol
Action of DPP-4, Incretin Enhancers Stimulates insulin release, prevents glucagon, slow gastric emptying
Side effects of DPP-4, Incretin Enhancers Nausea, diarrhea, mild-moderate hypoglycemia, possible acute pancreatitis
Types of DPP-4, Incretin Enhancers Sitagliptin, saxaglipton, exenatide
Created by: mlinger
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