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Digestive System


Pharynx Is the passageway that connects the oral cavity to the esophagus for the digestive system but also connects to the larynx. (Throat)
Tonsils Are made up of lymphatic tissue and are considered the first line of defense for the respiratory system.
Nasopharynx Is the part of the pharynx that is located posterior to the nasal cavity.
Nasopharyngeal tonsils Also called the adenoids
Lingual tonsils Located at the base of the tongue on the posterior surface
Palatine tonsils (tonsils) Pair of tonsils comes off the soft palate to the base of the tongue
Pharyngoplasty Surgical repair of the pharynx
Pharyngostomy Surgical incision of the pharynx
Esophagus Is a muscular structure that moves food from the pharynx to the stomach
Endoscopic procedure Insertion of a flexible or rigid instrument used to view internal structures
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) procedures The scope is passed to view the esophagus and upper portion of the GI tract.
Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) Is an endoscopic procedures that combines a retrograde cholangiography and a transhepatic cholangiography
Laparoscopy A procedure using a scope which views the interior structures of the abdomen
Ligation Ties or binds something together with catgut, cotton, wire, or silk
Manipulation Is a maneuver by hand to treat or perform therapy
Dilation Is performed when an expansion or stretching is necessary
Stomach Is a pouchlike structure that aids in the breakdown and digestion of food
Gastrotomy Surgical incision made into the stomach
Pyloromyotomy The cutting of the pyloric muscle
Vagotomy Surgical cutting of the vagus nerve with the intent of reducing acid secretions in the stomach
Gastric bypass surgery Dividing the small bowel with anastomosis to the proximal stomach to bypass the major portion of the stomach
Bariatric surgery Using bands and port insertion and is performed as a treatment of morbid obesity
Intestine is a membranous tube that begins at the pyloric opening of the stomach and ends at the anus.
Small intestine Begins at the pyloric opening sphincter and moves through the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and, the ileocecal sphincter
Large intestine Begins with the cecem and the moves to the colon, rectum, and anus
Digestive system The intake of nourishment, breakdown of food during digestion, absorption of nutrients, & elimination of waste products
Alimentary canal Also known as the digestive system
BE Barium enema
GERD Gastroesophageal reflux disease
GI Gastrointestinal
IBS Inflammatory bowel syndrome
NPO Nothing by mouth
PEG tube Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube
SBF Small bowel follow-through
TPN Total parenteral nutrition
Vermilion The pinkish border of the lips
V-excision V-shaped cut
Cheiloplasty Repair of the lips
Vestibule of the mouth Mucosal tissue and submucosal tissue of the lips and cheeks
Lingual Tongue
Sublingual Under tongue
Frenum Connection
Glossectomy Partial or complete removal of the tongue
Tracheostomy Surgical opening unto the trachea through the neck
Alveolus Socket where the tooth sits
Palate Roof of the mouth
Uvula Located in the posterior border of the soft palate
Palatoplaty Repair of the roof of the mouth
Pharyngeal flap An incision through the soft palate to the posterior pharyngeal wall
Island flap Made using subcutaneous tissue with nutrient vessels
Salivary glands Secrete saliva, which contains an enzyme that aids in digestion
Parotid glands Located in the front of the ear
Sublingual glands Under the tongue
Submandibular glands Found on the floor of the mouth
Ascending colon Begins at the ileoccal junction at the undersurface of the liver
Transverse colon Moves in a horizontal direction
Descending colon Moves down the left side of the abdomen
Sigmoid colon Connects to the rectum
Enterolysis Freeing of the intestinal adhesions
Duodenotomy Incision into the duodenum
Enterotomy Incision into the intestines
Anastomosis Surgically connecting two structures
Enteroenterostomy Surgical anastomosis two parts of the intestine with the creation of an opening between the two areas.
Open coleectomy Excision of all or part of the colon by making incision into the area
Meckel's diverticulum Form of diverticulum of the ileum
Mesentery Is the membranous attachment of an organ to the body wall
Appendix Small, twisted, tubelike structure located at the blind end of the cecum
Rectum Aids the removal of waste from the body
Proctosigmoidoscopy Examination of the rectum into the sigmoid colon
Sigmoidoscopy The endoscope is moved all the way through the rectum and sigmoid colon
Colonoscopy Examination in the entire colon, from the rectum to the cecum
Liver Filters red blood cells, stores essential vitamins, contains enzymes that break down poisons in the body, and produces bile that helps break down fats
Allotransplantation Transplant that occurs between like species
Biliary tract Composed of organs and ducts that are involved in the processing and movement of bile into the duodenum
Pancreas Organ that located behind the stomach and is connected to the gallbladder and the liver
Abdomen Area of the body that lies between the thorax and the pelvis
Peritoneum Membranous lining of the abdomen
Omentum Part of the peritoneum that connects the stomach to other structures of the abdomen
Hernia Bulge through the tissue that normally contains the structure
Inguinal hernia Bulging at the inguinal opening
Indirect inguinal hernia Sac that extends through the inguinal ring and into the inguinal canal
Direct inguinal hernia Protrudes into the abdominal wall
Hiatal hernia Type of hernia that pushes the stomach upward into the mediastinal cavity through the diaphragm
Incisional hernia Hernia that develops through a surgical scar or scar tissue
Strangulated hernia Hernia that develops gangrene because the sac is tightly constricted
Ventral hernia Hernia that protrudes through an abdominal scar where the abdominal wall is protected only by scar tissue
Accessory organs Secondary organs
Pulp Diseases of enamel
Pulpitis Abscess of the pulp
Periapical abscess Infection of the pulp and surrounding tissue
Geographic tongue A condition in which irregularly shaped patches
Esophagitis Inflammation of esophagus
Duodenum Where small intestine begins
Jejunum Middle portion of small intestine
ileum Last part of small intestine
Cecum Beginning of large intestine
Gastric ulcer Occurs in stomach
Duodenal ulcer Occurs in the upper part of small intestine
Peptic ulcer Occurs in unspecified site
Gastrojejunal ulcer Occurs in stomach and jejunum
Appendicitis Inflammation of appendix
Enteritis Inflammation of intestines
Colitis Inflammation of colon
Crohn's disease AKA (Regional enteritis) Inflammatory bowel disease
Ulcerative colitis Affects the colon causing diarrhea
Diverticula AKA (Diverticulosis) Abnormal pouches in the lining of intestines
Diverticulitis Sacs becoming inflamed
Peritonitis Inflammation of lining of abdominal cavity
Gallblabber Found under liver
Cholecystitis Inflammation of gallbladder
Formation of gallstones
Created by: diasiar



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