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Disease Chap. 10-15

Disease Process Worksheet Chapters 10-15

QuestionAnswer
List some of the risk factors of CAD. Age. Simply getting older increases your risk of damaged and narrowed arteries. Sex. Men are generally at greater risk of coronary artery disease. FH Smoking HTN High cholesterol Diabetes Obesity
Name a couple of tests that can be done to rule in a myocardial infarction. Cardiac biomarkers/enzymes Complete blood cell (CBC) count Comprehensive metabolic panel Lipid profile
What are some of the signs and symptoms of malignant hypertension? Headache, blurred vision and dyspnea.
Name two causes of chronic CHF Hypertension CAD COPD Cardiac Valve Damage Arrythmias Cardiomyopathy
Define cardiomyopathy. a noninflammatory disease of the cardiac muscle resulting in enlargement of the myocardium and ventricular dysfunction
How is bacterial endocarditis treated? Usually IV antibiotics for several weeks Bed rest Antipyretics and Anticoagulants
Differentiate between mitral stenosis, insufficiency and prolapse. Stenosis is hardening of the cusps of the mitral valve; preventing complete and normal opening Insufficiency the valve fails to close completely Prolapse occurs when 1 or more of the cusps protrude back into the L. Atrium during ventricular contraction.
List two symptoms of cardiac arrhythmias. A fluttering in your chest. A racing heartbeat (tachycardia) A slow heartbeat (bradycardia) Chest pain. Shortness of breath. Lightheadedness or dizziness. Sweating. Fainting (syncope) or near fainting.
Define shock. Collapse of the cardiovascular system, circulatory failure.
What treatments are performed on aneurysms? Surgical repair, endovascular stent/grafts, and monitoring of small aneurysms.
What diagnostic test is performed for thrombophlebitis? Imaging of vessel – Doppler/ultrasound
What blood tests are performed to diagnose anemia? RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit. Bone marrow biopsy in some cases.
What is the difference between acute lymphocytic leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (ALL) - an overproduction of immature lymphoid cells (lymphoblasts) in bone marrow and lymph nodes. (CLL) - slow-growing cancer, involves lymphocytes. Can spread to lymph nodes and organs such as the liver and spleen.
List the common lymph node sites for Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Cervical Supraclavicular Nodes Retroperitoneal Nodes Inguinal Nodes Axillary Nodes
List some major events in which DIC (Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation) can occur? Obstetric complications Septicemia Trauma Burns Hypothermia Extensive tissue destruction
List three causes of acute renal failure. Diminished blood flow to the kidneys, intrarenal damage or disease, or obstruction from urine flow. Drugs such as gentamicin and streptomycin, contrast dye can cause acute renal failure.
List three treatments for chronic renal failure. Dialysis Kidney Transplant Diet, fluid intake, diuretics
How is pyelonephritis treated? Antibiotics
Name of couple of procedures that can be performed for renal stones (Renal calculi). Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) Cystoscopy with stone removal, placement of stent
Is there a cure for polycystic kidney disease? No cure
List three possible causes for neurogenic bladder? CVA Spinal cord trauma Tumors Neuropathies Herniated lumbar discs
What is the treatment of choice for RCC (Renal Cell Carcinoma)? Surgical removal
Describe the treatment for bladder cancer. TURBT–cystoscopic removal of any tumors. Followup includes surveillance cystoscopy every 3 to 6 months. BCG may be administered for pts that are high risk for recurrence. For invasive carcinoma a cystectomy or removal of the bladder may be necessary.
List two drugs that are used to treat genital herpes. Acyclovir (Zovirax) Valacyclovir (Valtrex)
List three common symptoms of BPH (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia). Difficulty starting a urinary, a weak stream Inability to empty bladder completely. Frequency and nocturia
List two risk factors for testicular cancer. Cryptorchidism, or undescended testicle(s) HIV Infection Personal family history of testicular cancer
Define endometriosis. a condition resulting from the appearance of endometrial tissue outside the uterus and causing pelvic pain.
List two symptoms of uterine fibroids. Heavy or prolonged periods Pelvic pressure or pain. Frequent urination. Constipation.
What is the treatment for early stage ovarian cancer? Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO)
What procedure is performed to diagnose endometrial cancer? D & C Endometrial biopsy
List two treatments for ectopic pregnancy. Medication (methotrexate) which causes the placenta to die and the products to be absorbed by the body Laparoscopic surgery is the most common
List two signs and symptoms of preeclampsia. Swelling Protein in the urine Elevated blood pressure
List three signs and symptoms of a stroke. Headache Aphasia (dysphasia) Weakness
Define TIA (Trans Ischemic Attack). Temporary episodes (less than 24 hours) of impaired neurologic functioning due to inadequate flow of blood to the brain.
What is the most common cause of subdural or epidural hematomas? Head trauma
List two signs and symptoms of a concussion. Headache Amnesia Dizziness or "seeing stars" Nausea. Vomiting.
What is the difference between paraplegia and quadriplegia? Paraplegia = paralysis of the legs and lower body, typically caused by spinal injury or disease. Quadriplegia = paralysis of all four limbs; tetraplegia.
Define spinal stenosis. Narrowing of the spinal canal or the nerve root foramen
List two drugs that are used to treat Parkinson’s disease. Levodopa Carbidopa
Another name for ALS is? Lou Gehrig's disease
Name two conditions that can lead to neuropathy. Diabetes RA
What is a diagnostic test for meningitis? Spinal tap or lumbar puncture
List two symptoms of a brain tumor. Headache. N & V Seizures. Drowsiness or even coma.
What is another term for mental retardation? List two causes. "intellectual disability" Hereditary and congenital causes, prematurity, hypoxia, infections, trauma, poisonings and malnutrition.
What are two medications that are used for to treat ADHD? Adderall Vyvanse
Name two types of dementia. Alzheimer's disease Vascular dementia
List two subtypes of schizophrenia. Paranoid Schizophrenia Catatonic Schizophrenia
What is the prognosis for PTSD. is good with therapy and medications
Define avulsion injury. Portion of the skin and possibly underlying tissue is torn away.
Define crush injury. Occurs when part of the body is compressed with extreme force between two surfaces.
What is the difference between a puncture wound and laceration? A laceration wound is often contaminated with bacteria and debris from whatever object caused the cut. A puncture wound is usually caused by a sharp pointy object such as a nail, animal teeth, or a tack.
What is the rule of nines in an adult patient? Entire Head 9% Anterior and Posterior Trunk 18% each surface Entire arm 9% each Anterior and posterior surface of leg 9% each surface Perineum 1%
What nerve is involved in carpal tunnel syndrome? Median Nerve
What are three symptoms of shaken baby syndrome? Extreme irritability. Lethargy Breathing problems. Poor eating. Vomiting. Pale or bluish skin. Seizures.
Types of shock. Cardiogenic shock (due to heart problems) Hypovolemic shock (caused by too little blood volume) Anaphylactic shock (caused by allergic reaction) Septic shock (due to infections) Neurogenic shock (caused by damage to the nervous system)
Created by: wallace263