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blood

test 1

TermDefinition
formed elements erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets
plasma extracellular matrix, water, many proteins, ions, nutrients, wastes, hormones
blood specialized connective tissue with a pH of 7.35-7.45 (slightly basic)
primary function of erythrocytes transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
erythrocytes cytoplasm full of hemoglobin; biconcave disks; no nucleus; survive 4 months
hemoglobin 4 large globin proteins; each surrounding an ion-containing Heme group
hemopoiesis blood formation
hemocytoblast stem cell that all blood cells (RBC & WBC) develop from
erythropoiesis erythrocyte formation; occurs in bone marrow
erythropoietin regulates erythropoiesis; produced by kidneys
antigens specific glucoproteins that are responsible for blood types; immune system will fight and destroy if the wrong antigen (blood type) enters the body's blood system
agglutinate erythrocytes stick together as a reaction to an incompatible blood type enters system
leukocytes monocytes, lymphocytes; neutrophils; basophils; eosinophils; all formed in bone marrow; nucleus; use blood as highway to get somewhere else
leukocyte function engulfing invading organisms and debris; kill invading cells; produce antibodies; secrete chemicals which activate other immune cells; secrete chemicals that promote inflammation
granular leukocytes abundant, distinct granules; nucleus of each type also has a characteristic shape; neutrophils; basophils; eosinophils
neutrophils most abundant granular leukocytes in the blood; has up to 4 nucleus lobes; polymorphonuclear; stain weakly with both acidic and basic stains
eosinophils 1-4% of leukocytes in the blood; nucleus is indented or bilobed; stain orange or red; will fight parasitic infection
basophils least common leukocytes; basic stain- hematoxylin, blue/purple stain; indented or bilobed nucleus; outside of circulation- mast cells
agranular leukocytes no granules in the cell; lymphocytes & monocytes; nucleus has characteristic shape and density
monocytes 4-8% of leukocytes; nucleus indented, may be kidney shaped; stains blue; cytoplasm is abundant; outside of circulation- macrophages
lymphocytes 20-40% of leukocytes; nucleus usually spherical, may be slightly indented; stains blue; varying amounts of cytoplasm
diapedesis how leukocytes leave and enter the blood vessels
platelets clotting blood when vessels are injured; fragments of larger cells, megakaryocytes
hemostasis blood flow through a damaged vessel must stop; blood vessel repair; vasopasm, platelet plug, fibrin blood clot
vasopasm narrowing of the vessel reduces the flow of blood near the injury
platelet plug platelets attach to each other and to the injured part of the blood vessel
fibrin blood clot involves a series of chemical reactions; positive feedback; fibrinogen reacts with thrombin to make fibrin
fibrinolysis process that dissolves and removes the blood clot
plasmin dissolves fibrin
Created by: shill14
 

 



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