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Anatomy Stuff

2nd semester anatomy notes

secretes onto body surfaces exocrine
secretes into the bloodstream endocrine
gland that regulates sleep patterns pineal gland
hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla epi and norepi
lays down calcium calcitonin
produced by the C cells of the thyroid gland calcitonin
hormone that causes another hormone to be released releasing hormones
are releasing hormones trophic or atrophic trophic
hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary gland GH, ACTH, FSH, LH, PRL, TSH
hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary gland ADH, OT
moves glucose into cells from blood insulin
these veins are the stalks of the pituitary gland hypophyseal portal veins
problem with insulin production diabetes mellitus
ENDOCRINE hormones secreted by the pancreas insulin, glucogon, SS
hormones secreted by the hypothalamus CRH, GHRH, TRH
what kind of hormones does the hypothalamus secrete releasing hormones
causes mental sluggishess, extreme weight gain hypothyroidism
another name for hypothyroidism myxedema
causes extreme weigh loss and jitteriness hyperthyroidism
the layers of the adrenal cortex zona glomerulosa, zona fasiculata, zona reticularis
hormone secreted by the zona glomerulosa MC
hormone secreted by the zona fasiculata GC
hormone secreted by the zona reticularis androgen
name for hormones secreted by the thymus gland thymosins
main function of the pancreas regulates glucose
triiodothryronine released by thyroid, controls metabolism
prostaglandins travels to nearby tissues and relaxes smooth muscles
what is required by the thyroid gland to remain at a small size iodine
hormones released by the thyoid gland T3, T4
what is systolic pressure pressure when contracted
what is the timing relationship between atrial contraction/relaxation and ventricular contraction/relaxation they contract/relax at opposite times
give the valves of the heart bicuspid
list the pathway of the cardiac conduction system SA node -> AV node -> AV bundle -> purkinje fibers
path of blood through the heart right atrium > right ventricle > pulmonary artery > pulmonary vein > left ventricle > left atrium > aorta
what is the SA node pacemaker of the heart
what does the vagus nerve do when involved in heart action slows down the heart
what is the purpose of chordae tendinae holds valves open/closed
EKC patterns P wave, QRS wave, T wave
Sterling's Law the farther a cardial muscle fiber is stretched, the greater force it will rebound with
what is the parietal pericardium membrane around the percardial cavity
comparison in blood volume of arteries and veins veins hold much more blood
layers of the heart epicardium, myocardium, endocardium
in capillaries, _____ wins on the arteriole end, but _____ wins on the venule end hydrostatic pressure, osmotic pressure
capillary wall structure simple squamous epithelium
branches of the aorta subclavian, brachiocephalic
what factors affect blood pressure volume, heart action, viscosity, peripheral resistance
what is distalic pressure pressure during relaxation
celiac artery provides blood to what organs digestive organs
the major blood vessel to intestine messentary
carotid arteries go to the... head
what are the common iliac arteries branches at the bottom of the aorta
pulmonary arteries go to the... lungs
coronary arteries go to the... myocardium (heart muscle)
what effects do norepi and acetylcholine have on the SA node and in turn the heart norepi speeds it up, ACH slows it down
what is hemostasis blood clotting
serum vs plasma serum - does not have clotting factors
plasma constituents watrer, blood cells, CO2, O2, amino acids, proteins, etc.
RBC characteristics donut without a hole, filled with hemoglobin
how long do RBCs live 120 days
what is carbohemoglobin CO2 + hemoglobin
how do blood clots form platelets form platelet plug, prothrombin converts to thrombin and causes fibrinogen to convert to fibrin
what is pernicious anemia not enough vitamin B12
blood component & %s formed-45% plasma-55%
what is iron-deficiency anemia not enough iron and in turn not enough hemoglobin
what is used in the production of hemoglobin iron
which is the most abundant in blood, neutrophils or lymphocytes neutrophils
what is oxyhemoglobin oxygen + hemoglobin
what is deoxyhemoglobin hemoglobin w/o oxygen
what is the average number of RBCs in blood 5 million
what is the average number of WBCs in blood 5000 - 10000
what is the average number of platelets in blood 130000 - 360000
what is leukopenia to few WBCs
what is leukocytosis to many WBCs
what are the three types of granulocytes (WBCs) neutrophils, eosinophils,basophils
what are the two types of agranulocytes (WBCs) lymphocytes, monocytes
what does fibrinogen do turns into fibrin in blood clot formation to create a clot
what do glomaglobulins do form antibodies
what do albumins do holds water
what do agglutinogens and agglutinins do in blood form antigens and antibodies
what are the only phagocytic WBCs neutrophils and monocytes
what are the layers of the GI tract mucousa, submucousa, muscularis, serosa
what does salivary amylase break down carbohydrates
what does pepsin break down protein in the stomach
what does gastrin cause in the stomach causes glands to secrete
what is contained in the tooth root blood vessels and nerves
what is tthe first part of the small intestine called duodenum
what is the main digestive function of the pancreas to release enzymes that break down all types of foods
what are plica and villi folds in intestinal wall/ stuff in small intestine
what is "heartburn" acid regurgitation
name functions of the liver makes bile, breaks down stuff, stores glycogen, etc
what are the hepatic ducts ducts in the liver
what is in bile biliverdin, bilirubin, cholesterol, bile salts
what are the three parts of the small intestine duodenum, jujunum, illium
what is intrinsic factor amount of vitamin B12
what is the ileocecal valve valve between the small intestine and the large intestine
where is the cardiac sphincter bottom of the esophagus
what are the parts of the large intestine ascending, transcending, descending, sigmoid
what are the end products of fat digestion glycerol, fatty acids
Created by: Squeakurs