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Blood

Phleb I Chp 9

TermDefinition
formed elements of blood RBC, WBC, platelets
erythrocyte RBC
leukocyte WBC
thrombocyte platelet
hematology study of blood and blood forming tissues
hematology tests supply information about a pt's state of health
arteries carrie oxygenated blood away from heart, branch into smaller vessels called arterioles, have thick walls for high pressure, have pulse, blood is bright red in color
oxyhemoglobin makes blood bright red b/c its oxygenated
largest artery in body aorta
veins carries deoxygenated blood towards the heart, branch into smaller vessels called venules, have valves to prevent back flow, thin elastic "bouncy" walls, blood is dark red
capillaries microscopic vessels that act as bridge between arterioles and venules, so small only one blood cell may pass at a time, blood is mixture of arterial and venous blood, walls are permeable
permeable to pass through
blood life giving fluid of the body
average amount of pints of blood in adult 8-10
average amount of liters of blood in adult 5-6
where is blood flitered through kidneys
homeostasis overall balance in the body
heomstasis stoppage of blood (clotting)
phlebotomy surgical incision of a vein
venipunture surgical puncture of a vein
four functions of blood transportation, disbursement, regulation, hemostatis
blood function: transportation transports O2 from lungs to tissues and organs, transports CO2 from tissues to lungs
blood function: disbursement distributes waste (digestive), antibodies (immune), nutrients (digestive) and hormones (endocrine) WANH
blood function: regulation regulates body temp, pH and electrolytes (in kidney)
how does blood regulate body temperature vessels constrict (vasoconstriction) to keep blood warm and dilate (vasodialation) to cool body down
blood function: hemostasis stoppage of blood - formation of blood clots to prevent bleeding - platelets aggregate and form platelet plugs
two parts of blood plasma and formed elements
plasma straw colored liquid portion of blood, 90% water and 10% dissolved solutes
what are some of the dissolved solutes of plasma H2O, hormones, amino acids, nutrients, electrolytes, waste, antibodies, glucose, lipids, proteins (albumin, prothrombin, fibrinogen),
serum liquid portion after clotting
what are the steps of coagulation cascade (clotting) platelets aggregate and form plugs, factors start to activate (thromboplastin released), calcium binds, prothrombin converts to thrombin, fibrinogen converts to fibrin
what does the buffy coat contain WBC and platelets
what is hemopoesis or hematopoieisis formation and development of blood cells
where does hemopoesis take place in bone marrow with a single stem cell
hemocytoblast a non-differentiated stem cell that over time will mature and take on characteristics of a specific cell type (ie RBC, WBC, platelets)
what is the shape of a RBC biconcave disk
where is hemoglobin located surface of RBC
what does hemoglobin contain combination of protein and iron
erythroblast immature RBC with a nucleus
reticulocyte immature RBC without a nucleus
where are WBCs and RBCs destroyed liver, spleen, bone marrow
where are RBCs produced bone marrow
what is the importance of hemoglobin binds with O2 on the surface of the RBC
how does sickle cell or thalassemia affect the ability of RBC to do its job RBC shape is deformed so there is not enough surface area to carry O2 and hemoglobin (which is made up of iron and protein)
erythropoietin hormone synthesized mainly in kidney that forms RBC and releases into bloodstream - stimulates bone marrow to make RBCs
what are the vital minerals and vitamins for production of RBCs iron, B12, folate
REF renal erythoropoietic factor - kidney + pertaining to formation of RBC
where are RBCs form in fetus liver
lifespan of RBC 120 days
normal range of RBCs in female and male female = 4- 5.5 million male = 4.5 - 6 million
average WBC count 4,500 - 11,000
function of WBCs defense
two types of WBCs agranulocyte, granulocyte
agranulocyte WBC without granules - lymphocyte, monocyte - in all lymphatic tissue
granulocyte WBC with granules - neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils - in bone marrow
lifespan of WBC 1 day - 1 year depending on their job
neutrophils "first responders" that phagocytize or destroy bacteria - make up majority of WBCs (granulocyte)
eosinophils WBCs that help destroy parasites (granulocyte)
basophils WBCs that secrete heparin (anticoagulant) and histimine (granulocyte)
lymphocytes WBCs produced in bone marrow and lymphoid tissues - incresses with viral infections T-cells, B-cells, NK-cells (agranulocyte)
monocytes transforms into macrophage when move from circulatory to tissue space
diapedsis process of monocyte transforming into macrophage
platelets smallest of blood cells, fragmentized by megakaryocyte, contains thromboplastin which triggers clotting process
platelet formation and destruction formed in bone marrow, destroyed in spleen
lifespan of platelets 9-12 days
average amount of platelets 250,000 - 500,000
function of platelet hemostasis or forms platelet plugs
WBC differential differentiates each WBC so you can determine how many of each
morphology study of shape/size
polycythemia condition of too many RBCs
thrombocytopenia deficiency or decrease in platelets
pulse sites temporal, dorsalis pedis, carotid, brachial, radial, ulnar, femoral, popliteal, tibial, apical pulse
Created by: gcjlentz
 

 



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